The immersion of researches in the lives and cultures of the peoples they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to their existence.
old: Static (unchanging equilibrium), Homogenous (everyone is a culture is the same), bounded (completely separate from other cultures), ranked (primitive to modern). New: process, negotiated and conflicted, not bounded, many valid ways of being human.
part of what cultural anthropologist attempts to do, alongside “making the strange familiar”.
the step between discovery and description-what does what you discovered mean?
what we believe the truth of the world to be; how we think things really are in their actuality. Mutually reinforcing.
What are the key components of the def of culture? What is the relationship between culture and behavior? What types of behavior are not cultural?
Some distinctive characteristics of cultural analysis are that it is comparative and holistic: What does this mean? How does it relate to familiarization and DE familiarization? What is the relationship between culture and society?
How do anthropological views of culture differ from Enlightenment ideas of human nature?
Human reason, described previous people and anthropologist collected artifacts. Anthropologist focused on evolution of man. Enlightenment ideas were that human nature is same for everyone, everywhere, every time, and is unchanging and organized; anthropological view is that human nature isn’t universal, its different based on the culture of the person.
How have the objects of anthropological analysis changed since 1945?
How ethnography is usually conducted? Why is ethnography a useful research method? Why is dialogue an important part of ethnography? (Read Dispute in the Donggo and Tricking and Tripping)
Ethnography-process of discovering and describing a particular culture. Conducted through Qualitative methods, observations, interviews, field notes, participant. An attempt to reconstruct cultural understandings, thick description. Emic (insider’s perspective) Etic (outsider’s perspective)
What are the limitations and contradictions of Participant-Observation?
Why are ethnocentrism and naïve realism obstacles to ethnography?
Ethnocentrism is the idea that our beliefs and behaviors are right and true, and other peoples’ behaviors are false. Naïve realism thinking your perspective on life is the only one that exists. If someone is set on one of these two views then they cannot discover and properly observe a completely different culture and truly except their beliefs and function as they do.
What are some potential problems with cultural relativism?
Accounts to the positions from which one observes. Objectivity is a goal that we can never completely reach. Positioning: accounting for the positions from which one observes…sex, age, gender, background history. Objectivity: goal we can never completely reach.
How does the metaphor “illegal” shape our understanding of immigrants?
What are counter-rituals and how do they function?
May challenge cultural meanings and identities as well as create new ones. Disfiguration or defacement, transgression, and can evoke strong emotions to alter the usual.
How does religious belief relate to the ultimate problems of human existence?
The ultimate problems of human existence such as death, the explanation of evil, the meaning of life, and transcendent values that can be answered with religion. Why are we here, why do people suffer, why must we die, bafflement; to cope with things we don’t understand.
How do cultural anthropologists analyze religion and other forms of belief?
They do not treat religion as false or true. Religion is culturally shaped, Pastoralism – Christ Is our Shepherd, Feudalism: Christ is our Lord, Capitalism: Christ is an accountant