In Four Marilyns, Pop artist Andy Warhol participated in the cultural ____ of the film star and icon Marilyn Monroe.
Mexican artist Frida Kahlo is best known for her extremely realistic and often anguished ____.
Picasso protested the horror and brutality of the Spanish civil war in his 1937 masterpiece painting known as ____.
Marcel Duchamp's Fountain is a readymade, produced from an upside-down ____.
Images painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall completely, such as José Clemente Orozco's Epic of American Civilization: Hispano-American, are known as ____.
In Betye Saar's The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, the artist is protesting the use of Aunt Jemima as a(n) ____.
The 16th-century artist Leonardo da Vinci produced what is perhaps the most famous painting in the history of Western art. This painting is known as ____.
Judy Chicago's triangular installation called The Dinner Party was constructed to honor and immortalize ____.Answer
history's notable women
The use of space and atmosphere in Max Beckmann's The Dream could be best described as ____.
claustrophobic and compressed
Henri Matisse and Romare Bearden both utilize ____ to create order and harmony in their versions of the Piano Lesson.
color and shape repetition
Suzanne Valadon's Adam and Eve subverts ____.
In Laurie Simmons' photograph Red Library #2, the perfect room and robot-like woman are meant to symbolize ____.
the dangers of too much order
The 19th-century painter Jean-François Millet wrote, "I try not to have things look as if chance had brought them together, but as if they had a necessary bond between them." Here, the artist is expressing his quest for ____ in his art works.
Examining a work of art in its historical, social, and political ____ enables you to better understand it.
African-American artist Faith Ringgold records the story of her life and dreams on a Harlem rooftop. Her painted memories are depicted within the framework of a(n) ____.
The word art encompasses many meanings, including process. Which of the following is considered an artistic process?
In Nighthawks, Edward Hopper's desolate scene of late night diners in a city café, the scene seems to be set in the period of the ____.Answer
An anti-commercial movement begun in the 1960s in which works of art are conceived and executed in the mind of the artist is known as ____.
The Roman Emperor Trajan's tomb is a(n) ____ designed to glorify his military victories; centuries later the French adapted this design for ____.
column; Emperor Napoleon
____ creates the illusion of roundness or three dimensionality through the use of light and shadow on a two-dimensional surface.
Mark Tansey's Landscape depicts three-dimensional massive shapes on a two-dimensional surface, creating what is known as ____.
Every Sunday, ____ suggests the motion of the characters by repetition of imagery that changes slightly from frame to frame.
What inspired Picasso to create his groundbreaking painting known as Les Demoiselles d'Avignon?
African and Iberian art
Diagonal lines are often used to ____.
imply movement and directionality
The message or meaning in Helen Frankenthaler's amorphous abstract Bay Side seems to lie primarily in its ____.
The colors opposite each other on the color wheel are ____.
A triangular glass solid that breaks down sunlight or white light into different colors is called a(n) ____.Answer
The ____ shape of an artistic composition is considered the background.
Using their signature combination of the body and braided hair, the Gerlovins created a modern revision of ____, one of the most popular themes of the Renaissance.
Madonna and Child
When an artist places one object in front of another to create the illusion of depth, it is called ____.
From the Italian for "light-dark," what term is sometimes used in place of the word modeling?
In art, a ____ is usually defined as a moving dot and is both the simplest and most complex of the visual elements.
Art works that utilize closely related families of color seem ____.
harmonious and soothing
American sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his mobiles, which are excellent examples of ____.
Actual texture is primarily experienced through the sense of ____.
The edges formed by the flesh and muscle in Edward Weston's Knees are best described as ____.
When you look at a(n) ____ painting, your eyes are manipulated to see rippling movement and afterimages.
In works with ____, the lines are completed by the viewer.
In La Source, Prud'hon's nude figure is ____.
carefully modeled and three dimensional
Palmer Hayden's The Subway represents a demographic and ethnic cross-section of the strap-hanging riders of 1930s New York City and thus demonstrates ____.
In Kay Sage's I Saw Three Cities, most of the visual weight in the composition occurs in the lower half but is balanced in the upper reaches of the sky by ____.
a flowing column of drapery
Although there is much variety amongst the characters in Archibald Motley Jr.'s Saturday Night, the overall composition is unified by ____.
a glowing red color field
Count de Montizon's photograph The Hippopotamus at the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park is trying to communicate the ____ of the exotic animal by comparing it to the nine onlookers behind it.
In art, ____ refers to the distribution of the actual or apparent weight of the compositional elements.
In Family of Saltimbanques, Picasso places visual emphasis on the seated woman in the painting through ____.
Pictorial balance can be found in which of the following?
Leonardo da Vinci's Proportion of the Human Figure
We can discern the proper size of which of the following objects in Magritte's Personal Values?
none of these choices
In Welcome the World Famous Brand, the Luo Brothers portray an overcrowded composition which emphasizes ____.
the convergence of consumerism and globalism
As in Robert Capa's photograph Death of a Loyalist Soldier, imbalance in a work of art can be used to capture a sense of ____.
The classical Greek sculptor Polykleitos was the first known artist to apply the principle of ____ in order to achieve overall naturalistic balance in the human body's stance.
Which of the following statements about the patriarchal figure in Viola Frey's Family Portrait does not indicate his influential status within the family?
Toys can be seen in the composition.
Unlike pure, bilateral symmetry, ____ provides variety within an overall unified composition.
In Wu Jide's River Dwellers, patches of white and well placed touches of color are responsible for the overall ____ in an asymmetrical and essentially monochromatic composition.
Content can be a powerful focal point in a work of art. In Edgar Degas' Woman Leaning near a Vase of Flowers, the focal point of the composition is the ____.
According to Polykleitos, the head of an ideal human body should be ____ of the total height of the body.
If you superimpose a diagram of a ____ over a photograph of the East façade of the Parthenon, it is a perfect fit.
root five rectangle
The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the ____ because they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.
____ artists are masters of the brush-and-ink medium. They have used it for centuries for all types of ____.
Claudio Bravo's Package is an excellently executed trompe l'oeil drawing that presents the illusion of a package wrapped in ____.
The unforgiving medium of ____ was widely used for drawing from the late Middle Ages to the early 1500s, when it was largely replaced by the lead pencil.
Many of the artist Chuck Close's unidealized portraits, such as Self Portrait/Conte Crayon, are based on a ____, which produces blurry photographic likenesses.
grid transfer method
Dr. Seuss, famous for his children's books, worked for a New York tabloid newspaper as chief editorial cartoonist during ____.Answer
World War II
In silverpoint drawings, the drawing surface must be coated with a ground of ____.
bone dust or chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment
A form of charcoal was used by our primitive ancestors to create images on ____.
Honoré Daumier's pen and ink drawing, Counsel for the Defense(the Advocate), is a caricatured illustration of ____.
pompous, superficial lawyers
Broadly defined, ____ is the art of running an implement that leaves a mark over a surface.
Michelangelo's Studies for the Libyan Sybil is a good example of a drawing that was meant to be used ____.Answer
as a preparatory study for another project
____ chose the medium of drawing to render her dramatic Self-Portrait Exaggerating My Negroid Features (Fig. 5-6).
Pastels consist of ground chalk mixed with powdered pigments and a binder. Whereas chalk drawings can be traced to prehistoric times, pastels did not come into wide use until the ____.
After meeting Ms. Mary Lou Furcron, African American artist Beverly Buchanan's life and art have focused on ____, as seen in Henriette's Yard.
southern shack dwellers
The effects of ____ when each is drawn against a paper surface are very similar.
charcoal, chalk, and pastel
Käthe Kollwitz's Self Portrait (Fig. 5-8) reveals one aspect of the character of the ____.
The oldest known type of ink is India or China ink, made from a solution of ____.
carbon black and water
From the Latin for "blood," ____ is the name associated with an earthy red chalk color.
In its original meaning, a ____ was a full-scale preliminary drawing executed on paper for projects such as frescoes, stained glass, oil paintings, or tapestries.
With a drawing, the quality of line and the nature of shading are very much affected by the ____ of the support.
Which of the following drawing materials cannot be smudged or rubbed for a hazy effect?
Gilbert Stuart's 18th-century traditional portrait of George Washington achieves a realistic likeness largely through ____.
In both tempera and oil painting, the surface of the wood or canvas is covered with a ground of powdered chalk or plaster and animal glue known as ____.Answer
Contemporary watercolor is referred to as ____, made up of pigments and a vehicle of ____.
aquarelle; gum arabic
The transition to oil paint in the 14th and 15th centuries was gradual. For many years, it was only used for ____ in order to give the paintings a high sheen.
____ was the exclusive painting medium of artists during the Middle Ages.
Fifteenth-century artist Gentile da Fabriano applied thinly hammered sheets of gold to his Adoration of the Magi tempera panel using a technique known as ____.
The fluidity and portability of watercolor has often lent itself to ____.Answer
rapid sketches and preparatory studies
The binding agent that powdered pigment is mixed with to form paint is known as the ____.
Master graffiti artists almost always add "tags" to their artworks, which are ____.
The traditional composition of tempera, rarely used today, consisted of ____.
egg, pigment, and water
was the principal painting medium during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art.
The ancient Egyptians and Greeks tinted their sculptures with ____ to give them a lifelike appearance.
In Roger Shimomura's Untitled painting, he has blended traditional Japanese imagery with American cartoon characters and includes a self-portrait in which he is depicted as ____.
the Statue of Liberty
True fresco, or ____, is executed on damp ____.
buon fresco; lime plaster
Rembrandt used ____ to create his oil-on-board painting of the Head of St. Matthew.
In Giotto's 14th-century painting Lamentation, joints can clearly be seen that break the blue sky into numerous sections. This occurred because of the ____.
limitations of fresco
Pop artist Roy Lichtenstein's portrait of George Washington is an oil-on-canvas image that most resembles a(n) ____.
Ralph Going's Rock Ola is a contradiction of what we normally consider when we think of a watercolor on paper because the work is considered to be ____.
The female image in Red Coat by Alex Katz is most reminiscent of a ____.
In creating his Christ Crucified between Two Thieves, Rembrandt used a drypoint needle in order to create ____.
soft, velvety lines
Intaglio prints are made from ____ into which lines have been incised.
Woodcuts make use of the flat surface of wooden boards, but wood engravings use the end sections of the boards, yielding a ____ surface.
Serigraphy, or silkscreen, was first developed for use as a(n) ____ medium, a fitting medium because Pop artist ____ used it to create Four Multi-colored Marilyns.
commercial; Andy Warhol
Aquatint is frequently used along with line etching to mimic the effects produced by ____.
Etching is a very versatile medium. In Henri Matisse's Loulou in a Flowered Hat, he used ____ to represent the essential features of a woman.
only a few uniformly etched lines
The working surface from which a print is made is called a ____.Answer
In Paul Landacre's Growing Corn, we see a good example of the ____ that can be obtained from the skillful use of wood engraving.
precise lines and tonal gradations
Chinese artist Wang Guangyi's Great Criticism: Coca-Cola is a ____ that resembles a commercially produced propaganda poster.
The 20th-century American abstract artist Josef Albers created Solo V, an inkless intaglio technique known as ____.
A monotype differs from all other printmaking techniques because ____.
it only yields a single, unique image
In the 17th century, a Dutchman developed a technique for mezzotint, from the Italian for ____, in which the metal plate is worked over with a multi-toothed tool called a ____.
Zhao Xiaomo's Family by the Lotus Pond is a(n) ____. The areas that were not meant to be printed were carved out ____ the surface of the wood.
In the ____ process, the artist creates clean-cut lines on a plate of copper, zinc, or steel by forcing a sharp burin across the surface with the heel of the hand.
Lithography, invented in the beginning of the 19th century by a German playwright, is a planographic, or ____, printing process in which a ____ is used.
surface; stone slab
Etching is an intaglio process in which the matrix is covered with a waxy substance and the design is drawn into this substance. The completed matrix drawing is then put into a(n) ____.
acid bath that etches the exposed areas of the matrix
In works such as her Untitled mixed-media print of Chinese girls, Hung Liu's purpose is to ____.Answer
highlight the degradation of previous generations of Chinese women
____ is the only printmaking process in which prints can be rendered in paint as well as ink.
Which of the following types of printmaking is not an essentially linear media?
After the daguerreotype, the next major advance in the history of photography was the development of the ____ process, an example of which is Young Lady with an Umbrella.
When a camera shutter opens for a few thousandths of a second over and over in quick succession, ____ shots are being taken.
Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother is a touching photograph taken during the period of ____.
the Great Depression
With a Polaroid camera, the photograph appears before your eyes. This is an example of ____ film.
Margaret Bourke-White wrote, "Using the camera was almost a relief; it interposed a slight barrier between myself and the white horror in front of me..." Here, Bourke-White is describing ____.
Buchenwald during the Holocaust
By the 1850s, photographic portrait studios became quite popular and began to serve the needs of ____.
a growing middle class
Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel's 1928 surrealistic film Un Chien Andalou was intended by the creators to ____.
evoke instinctive reactions of repulsion and attraction
The advent of the camera replaced the age-old need of art to imitate nature as closely as possible, and this change, in turn, led to the development of 20th century artistic ____.Answer
Which classic early color film depicted real life in black and white and imaginary life in expressionistic color?
The Wizard of Oz
The Artist's Studio, taken in 1837, was the first photograph of its kind and was produced on silver-plated copper by ____.Answer
William Henry Fox Talbot's first "photogenic drawings" were eerie, delicate photographs of ____, produced from a ____.
A(n) ____ magnifies faraway objects and collapses the spaces between ordinarily distant objects.
The "active layer" of film contains a(n) ____ of small particles of ____.
emulsion; silver halide
A flash or whirl of abruptly changing newspaper headlines meant to indicate the progression of time and events in a film is known as a ____.
Edward Steichen's ____, taken in 1906, is one of the foremost early examples of the photograph as a work of art.
The Flatiron Building-Evening
The first photographic process to leave a permanent image was invented in 1826 and known as ____.Answer
Higher quality photographs are said to have higher ____.
William Wegman's Blue Period is a canine spoof on ____.
Picasso's Old Guitarist
In both the camera and the ____, light enters a narrow opening and is projected onto a photosensitive surface.
Alexander Gardner's Home of a Rebel Sharpshooter, Gettysburg is a graphic photo taken during the ____, probably from a camera in a wagon known as a ____.
United States Civil War; Whatsit
____ is very likely the most demanding type of sculpture because the artist must have a clear concept of the final product from the very beginning of the process.
Janine Antoni's 600-pound cube, titled Gnaw, is made of ____ and sculpted by ____.
Which of the following is not an additive sculptural process?
Michelangelo's The Cross-Legged Captive is an example of ____ sculpture.
Light sculptor Dan Flavin primarily designs using ____.
All but one of the following materials can be used for casting. Which one cannot?
According to Marcel Duchamp, the function of a readymade was to ____.
prompt the viewer to think and think again
The painful realism of Kiki Smith's figures, complete with body parts and bodily fluids, was likely influenced by her career as a(n) ____.
emergency medical technician
Louise Nevelson said, "I began using found objects. I had all this wood lying around and I began to move it around, I began to compose." Nevelson's compositions are considered ____.
Sherry Levine's Fountains after Duchamp pays homage to Marcel Duchamp's original Dada "readymade" and is a classic example of ____.
In his Apollo and Daphne (Fig. 2-72), the Italian Baroque sculptor Bernini captured the softness of flesh and the textures of hair, leaves, and bark, thereby showing us the potential of ____ as a sculptural material.Answer
Claes Oldenburg's Soft Toilet elevates an everyday object to a work of art and forces us to rethink its function in society. This is an example of ____.
In recent years, artists have produced ____ sculptures by welding, riveting, and soldering.
In the lost wax process, molten metal is poured into a fire-resistant mold known as a(n) ____.
Due to its ____, clay is frequently used to make three-dimensional preparatory sketches for other sculptures.
Referring to sculptures such as ____, art critic Robert Hughes said such works were "everything that statues had not been: not monolithic, but open, not cast or carved, but assembled from flat planes."Answer
Picasso's Mandolin and Clarinet
In sculptural works such as Three Figures and Four Benches, George Segal produces plaster replicas of people who seem very ____.Answer
Of the following, which material is more commonly used in assemblages?
Wood has more tensile strength than stone, meaning that it can be ____ more.
bent and stretched
George Five Open Squares Gyratory is an example of a ____.Answer
Located in Chicago's Millennium Park, Anish Kapoor's ____ is nicknamed ____ because of its elliptical shape.
Cloud Gate; the bean
Peter Eisenman placed 2711 gray, concrete ____ side by side to create a sense of claustrophobia at the Berlin Holocaust Memorial.
Which of the following is central to Peter Eisenman's Holocaust Memorial in Berlin?
a sense of loss and absence
Probably the most ubiquitous type of monument depicts a man on horseback, known as a(n) ____ statue.
The primary purpose of ____ is to preserve memories of persons or events.
For The Ice Cube Project, Marco Evaristti and his crew ____ on an almost 10,000 square foot iceberg off the Greenland coast.
sprayed red dye
Cai Guo Qiang's classic example of ephemeral art, Transient Rainbow, came and went in about ____ in June of 2002.Answer
The Cow Parades, turning up in every style and theme imaginable in many cities worldwide, are considered ____.Answer
Antoni Gaudi was known for his ____ that helped define the Modernista style in Catalonia, Spain.
playful, organic forms
Site-specific works are distinguished from other artworks in that they are produced ____.
in or for one location
Michelangelo's David was originally installed as a public work of art for the ____ in Florence.
Piazza della Signoria
Which of the following statements about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial is not correct?
There is a large label that states who is being memorialized.
Andy Goldsworthy's Ice Star was produced using ____.
Which artist used their body as a building site for miniature dwellings for the work entitled Landscape-Body-Dwelling?
For her "Volcano" Series, Ana Mendieta marked the presence of ____ in the landscape using various methods and materials.
A ____, located at the entrance to Barcelona's Parc Guell, has become a favorite symbol of the city.
mosaic serpent by Gaudi
Which of the following was designed to be a site-specific work?
One of the most beloved public sculptures in America is Emma Stebbins' Angel of the Waters, located ____.
in New York's Central Park
Walter de Maria's The Lightning Field is considered a spectacular example of ____.
In Robert Smithson's Yucatan Mirror Displacements, the mirrors transform the environment by interrupting the ____.
____, primarily used for covering roofs of structures, acquire their strength from the fact that the sides of a triangle, once joined, cannot be forced out of shape.
____ are constructed by placing barrel vaults at right angles to cover a square space known as a ____.
groin vaults; bay
One of the best preserved ancient Roman aqueduct systems is the ____ near Nimes, France. The ____ of the limestone blocks allowed for the weight of three tiers of arches.
Pont du Gard; compressive strength
Because it rests on a square base, the dome of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is supported by four triangular surfaces known as ____.
Richard Morris Hunt's Griswold House, built in 1863, was designed in the short-lived ____ style. Its exterior treatment resembled an assemblage of matchsticks with many turrets, gables, and dormers.
In Frank Lloyd Wright's famous "Fallingwater," he made use of reinforced concrete to produce ____.
The original idea for reinforced concrete began in the 1860s with Jacques Monier, who proposed strengthening concrete ____ with wire mesh.Answer
The prehistoric Stonehenge is one of the earliest examples of ____ construction, in which two stones were set vertically and a third stone laid across them, creating an opening beneath.
The Gothic, pointed arch church of Notre-Dame of Paris is bathed in light due to its ample ____.
The Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim, Germany, built in the Ottonian period (1001-1031), has square bays and its walls are blank and massive. This is due to its ____.
The 17,000 almost identical small homes built in post-World War II Levittown, New York, are a reflection of the ____.
Originally a derisive term, ____ uses mass produced, light, easily handled cuts of wood and metal nails for the assembly of millions of homes and small buildings on site.
The Church of St. Étienne was one of the first cathedrals to use true ribbed vaulting, allowing a(n) ____ to be pierced through the walls from which light could enter the nave of the church.
Louis Sullivan's rigid horizontal and vertical processions of façade elements that suggest the regularity of the spaces within his Wainwright Building reinforce Sullivan's famous motto that ____.
"form follows function"
The Eiffel Tower's magnificent iron trusses were ____.
The interior of the Egyptian temple of Amen-Re at Karnak is cluttered by a forest of columns because of the ____.
weight of the massive stone lintels
Peter Testa believes we "need to rethink how we assemble buildings" and has designed a high-rise tower out of ____.
woven carbon fiber
Which of the following statements about steel cable construction, first used to build the Brooklyn Bridge, is not true?
It can only span very short distances.
The Native American dwellings at Mesa Verde, Colorado used ____ as part of the back support for more than one hundred rectangular ____.Answer
cliff walls; apartments
The assertive clashing of shapes in Frank Gehry's high-tech Ray and Maria Stata Center at MIT symbolizes ____.Answer
the diverse disciplines that will be housed in the structure