Prehistoric art is divided into three phases that correspond to the periods of Stone Age culture:
____, ____, & ____
Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic
___ is the late years of the Old Stone Age
__ is the Middle Stone Age
The Stone Age culture periods ran roughly the years __ to __ BC
14,000 to 2,000 BC
Where can the first attempts at the creation of paleolithic art be found?
What was found in Lascaux, France?
great cave paintings of the Stone Age:
Hall of Bulls, Lascaux (Dordogne), France (Upper Paleolithic, c. 15,000 - 10,000 BCE)
horses, bulls, reindeer that appear to be stampeeding in all directions
What is foreshortening?
diminshing the size of the parts of an object that are represented as farthest from the viewer
rendering parts of an object as receding from the viewer at angles oblique to the picture plane so that they appear proportionately shorter than parts of the object that are parallel to the picture plane
Venus of Willendorf (Upper Paleolithic) (c. 25,000 BCE)
named after the site at which she was unearthed
Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, England (Neolithic, c. 1800-1400 BCE)
consists of two concentric rings of stones surrounding others, in a horsehoe shape
purpose is a mystery; believed to be a druid temple or work of Merlin, King Arthur's magician
What are megaliths?
the term comes from the Greek, meaning "large stones"
they weigh several tons
Syria and Iraq
the Persian Gulf
What is ziggurat?
a monumental platform for a temple
(also seen in the Bablyonian and Assyrian civilizations of later years)
a multilevel structure consisting of a core of sunbaked mud bricks faced with fired brick, sometimes of bright colors
Where was the temple in the ziggurat and how was it reached?
on the uppermost level of the ziggurat
gained by stairs or a series of ramps leading from one level to the next or by a spiral ramp that rose from ground to summit
The White Temple at Uruk and ziggurat
The Sumarian gods: __ was the god of the sky, __ was the god of the moon, and ___ was the god of vegetation
Anu - sky
Nannu - moon
Abu - vegetation
Statues from Abu Temple, Tel Asdmar (Sumarian, Early Dynasty period, c. 2900-2600 BCE)
The Great Pyramids (Fig. 13-12) of Giza were created during the Middle Kingdom.
They were created during the Old Kingdom
The so-called Tholos Tomb (Fig. 13-22) was a product of Aegean civilization.
Stonehenge belongs to the Neolithic period.
Ancient Near East
The statue of the Seated Khafre, a(n) ________ sculpture, is very rigid in appearance.
An example of prehistoric painting at Lascaux is called ________.
Hall of Bulls
Ancient Near East
The Cycladic idol is from the ________ period.
The art of Akhenaton's reign in ________ was revolutionary.
The ancient civilizations that grew in the Fertile Crescent were located in ________.
the Ancient Near East
the Ancient Near East
The Queen's bedroom in the Palace at Knossos (Fig. 13- 20) is an example of ________ art and architecture.
The Lascaux cave paintings (Fig. 13-1) were created in the ________ period.
The votive statues from Abu Temple, Tel Asmar (Fig. 13-5), were created by the ________.
A form of writing known as pictographs was developed in ________.
The Lion Gate (Fig. 13-21) is an example of ________ architecture using post-and-lintel construction.
What is radial balance?
balance in which the design elements radiante from a center point. it is in the center of the stadium tha tthe adueince is intended to focus its attention, like flowers towards the radiating sun.
The representation of forms according to an accepted notion of beauty or perfection is called idealism.
The Dying Gaul (Fig. 14-16) illustrates the 5th-century Classical preoccupation with high drama and unleashed passion.
The swelling of the shaft of a column is called entasis.
In the Hermes and Dionysos (Fig. 14-14) by Praxiteles, we see use of a double weight-shift principle that results in a stance known as an S-curve.
In Roman portraiture we see Rome's unique contribution to the arts-that of idealism.
The Parthenon in Athens is an example of the ________ style of architecture.
Theatricality in sculpture is a characteristic of the ________ period.
Myron's Discobolus (Discus Thrower) (Fig. 14-9) was one of the most widely copied works of the ________ period.
The ________ Peplos Kore is one of the most enchanting images in Greek art.
Hermes and Dionysos (Fig. 14-14) by Praxiteles is an undisputed work of the ________ era.
The Franeois Vase (Fig. 14-3) is from the ________ period.
Stylobate is used in ________ as a support or base.
S curve results from double weight shift and enhances a naturalistic effect in ________.
The use of the coffer in ________ helps lighten-both visually and structurally.
in a vase painting
The Doric frieze is divided vertically into compartments called ________.
A Roman engineering device used to carry water over long distances was called a(n)________.
The sole source of light in the Pantheon is its ________.
During the Empire period of Roman history, the pure realism of Republican portrait busts was modified toward something akin to Greek ________.
A(n) ________ portrait shows the person on horseback.
There were three styles, or orders, in Greek architecture ________.
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
The Late Classical period of Greek art brought a more humanistic and ________ style.
Greek art entered the Hellenistic period under the reign of ________.
Alexander the Great
The Parthenon was dedicated to the goddess ________.
The interiors of Etruscan tombs were constructed to resemble ________.
What is lapis lazuli?
an opaque blue, semiprecious stone
What is basalt?
a dark tough volcanic rock
hugs the banks of the Nile river, which flows north from Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea
Who was Horus?
ancient Egyption sun god
What is a portico?
the entrance facade of a Greek temple, adapted for use with other buildings and consisting of a colonnade, entablature, and pediment (from Greek for 'porch')
What is a rosette?
a painted or sculpted circular ornament with petals and leaves radiating from the center
What is lintel?
What is a tholos?
What is a steel?
What is Hellenism?
What is humanism?
What is naturalism?
What is idealism?
What is the Geometric period? How long did it span?
What is the Archaic period?
How long did it span?
a period of Greek art dating roughly 660-480 BCE
The term archaic means 'old' and refers to the art created before the Classical period.
What is a volute krater?
What is slip?
What is a megron?
a rectangular room with a two-columned porch
What is cella?
the small inner room of a Greek temple, used to house the statue of the god or goddess to whome the temple is dedicated
located behind solid masonry walls, teh cella was accessible only to the temple priests
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Describe Doric order.
the earliest and simplest of the Greek architectural styles, consisting of relatively short, squat columns, sometimes unfluted, and a simple, square shaped capital
The Doric frieze is usually divided into triglyphs and metopes
What is a capitol?
in architecture, the area at the top of the shaft of a column that provides a solid base for the horizontal elements above
capitals provide decorative transitions between the cylinder of the column and the rectilinear architrave above
What is the entablature?
What is the architrave?
triglyphs and metopes
What are triglyphs?
What is a metope?
What is a cornice?
What is a pediment?
in architecture, any trianglular shape surrounded by cornices, especially one that surmounts the entablature of the portico facade of Greek temple
The Romans frequently placed pediments without support over windows and doorways
What is a kouros figure?
the male figured a s represented in the sculpture of the geomentric and Archaic styles (from Greek for "boy")
What is a kore figure?
a clothed female figure of the Greek Archaic style, often adorned with intricate carved detail
a counterpart to the male kouros figure
What is a peplos?
in Greek Classical Art, a heavy woolen wrap
Who is Athena?
the Greek goddes of wisdom, skills and war
What is entasis?
What is the weight-shift principle?
the situationg of the human figure so that the legs and hips are turned in one direction and the chest and arms in another
this shifting of weight results in a diagonal balancing of tension and relaxation
What is a mural?
image(s) painted directly on a wall or intended to cover a wall completely (from muralis, Latin for "of a wall")
What is an S curve?
What is a cinerary urn?
the Roman period lasting from the victories over the Etruscans to the death of Julius Caesar (527-509 BCE)
Who are the patricians?
members of the noble class in ancient Rome
the common people in ancient Rome
What is the herringbone perspective?
a style of Roman painting in which walls were given the illusion of opening onto a scene
componsed of right angles
What is the Empire period?
the Roman period from about 27 BCE to 295 CE, when the empire was divided
What is an ampitheatre?
What is a coffer?
a decorative sunken panel
What is an oculus?
What is stoicism?
What is a forum?