-only 1% has been studied 99% has not
-oldest organism (3.8 Billion)
archae bacteria created our oxygen
-most abundant organism on earth
-intestines are loaded with bacteria for digestion
-colon ½ bacteria
-feces ¼ bacteria
why doesn’t bacteria take over the world? (4)
1. if they run out of resources they die
2.thier own waste makes their environment less livable
3. viruses kill them
4. fungi kill them
Miracle drug discovered
How do antibiotics work?
Animals don’t have cell walls
But, resistance to antibiotics is rapidly increasing WHY? (4)
1. doctors prescribe antibiotics for viral
2. people don’t finish their whole prescription all this does is kill off the weak ones while the strong ones survive
3.increase in antibacterial soap
4. antibiotics in farm animals cause resistance in humans
what kills bacteria is in hand soap?
Ethyl Alcohol (the same kind you drink, but its majorly diluted)
General bacteria information (5)
1.wide range of adaption to: cold, heat, salt, acidity, pressure
2. no nucleus
3. only one chromosome
4. reproduce asexually by binary fission
binary fission- when one becomes two is how they reproduce (only takes 20 mins)
can tolerate hot water without being denatured
cannot handle oxygen
use light for energy & CO2 for carbon source
use chemicals for energy and CO2 for carbon source
uses light for energy and use organic compounds to get carbon
(people) use chemicals for energy and organic stuff to get carbon
Coccus- round, spherical
How do bacteria move? (4)
1. flagella-like propellers
2.cilia- move in unison to swim (small like hairs)
3. built in compass of magnetite to guide them
*some bacteria group together to act like a multi-celled organism
- a small resting stage of bacillus that can tolerate extreme temperatures
1. contains a copy of the DNA and a small amount of cytoplasm
2. forms when conditions for life aren’t good
3. Stays around for millions of years
what are spores used in?
why are spores used in biological warfare
you can store them up indefinitely
When bacteria evolves quickly and becomes resistant to antibiotics how do they do this?
-a small circle of DNA in cytoplasm, contains few genes
- a fertility plasmid may cause a sex pillus to grow, which may contain a gene for antibiotic resistance
-once the new bacterium is made it now has resistance and has evolved
many bacteria are pathogens
1. food posing
bacteria can live more than 2 weeks in a wet sponge
what is the leading cause of child deaths in LDC’s?
When Columbus returned to Europe he brought (5)
-maize & sugarcane
will cold temperature kill bacteria
usually kill off disease causing bacteria
can viruses tolerate harsh conditions
no, bacteria can
2 types of infection
1. cutaneous-(skin) enter through cuts
Diseases caused by Staphyloccal (2)
Good types of bacteria
-to produce insulin
-detoxify toxic wastes
Azospirillum and sugarcane
protistas the oldest of the prokayotes-
-mixed bag group
-proistas crested fungi, plants, animals
amoebas are protozoan protistas-
this means first animal ,not first animal but first animal life
Amoebas can cause ?
dysentery-kills may people especially in developing countries
blooming algae cause
the famous red tide
why is the famous red tide a problem? (2)
1. fish are killed by 100s
2. toxins from algae can be lethal to humans
we don’t eat the algae but the shellfish we eat, eat it and we get sick
white cliffs of Dover what formed these?
Dead amoebas (protistas) over millions of years sank to the ocean bottom and were washed up on shore
in ocean by phytoplankton
protistas are larger than
malaria mosquitoes carry it?
Yes, but did they create it No, it carries the genus -plasmosis
sufficient vitamin A
potatoes have zero fat and a lot of protein
How is bacteria removed from water?
-sewage plants and septic tanks
Feed fermentation for animals
Silage- plants harvested while green chopped up then stored in silos
-nutritional value of silos is improved by bacteria
farmers often inoculate with bacteria to?
Speed up the process
Amoebas, algae, and phytoplankton are all?
what is the base for the food web in the sea?
What is the largest visible organism on earth?
-the giant sea kelp
How to protistas move? (4)
1.psedudopodium means- fake foot part of the cytoplasm bulges out and anchors itself (kind of like a hernia)
2. some single celled ones can join together and move
the most famous disease caused by protistas?
Late blight in potatoes , greatly effected Ireland