used to look at one thin section of specimen to see inner structures.
electrons go through specimen- dark spot, electrons dont go through specimen-light spot.
many sections must be used if wantng to create a 3D structure.
Helps reveal viruses by locating molecules within a specimen by alternating an antibody to a gold particle.
specimen emits light in response to microscope.
if the molecule has not autoflouresence qualities naturally, antibodies can be attatched to make it glow.
"reporter proteins"- can also add proteins to make it glow at specific parts
computer scans back and forth and computes a 3D image.
there is not out of focus blur.
is able to focus on one specific part
discovered protist and bacteria and named them animolcules meaning little animal.
Published a paper and kept voucher specimen
The cells wall is a key feature in alll prokaryotic cells. it
-differs from eukaryotes
-contains peptidoglycan( polymer composed of modified sugars cross linked with polypeptides)
-if cell has a lot of peptidoglycan it is gram positive and stains dark violet
-is used for shape and protection
prokaryote is able to attatch to substrates of other prokaryotes because of capsule and fibri
falgella and taxis
the ability for a prokaryote to move towards or away from a stimulous, whether it is good of bad
random mutation (happens a lot because they divide so rapidly) and horizontal gene transfer
prokaryotes recieve genes from other prokaryotes whether they are dead or alive
DNA that is horizontally transferred into prokarytes is from surroundings and environment
-requires stress, often from dead cells
horizontal gene transfer that uses phages to carry prokaryotic genes from one host to another
"DNA is transmitted by virus"
20-50 minutes for one generation of E. Coli
-depending on conditions, the prokaryotes can adapt and if given enough nutrients/ right conditions they can reproduce very rapidly
can adapt to changing environment
-can also change their environment
considerably less DNA than eukaryotes
-minimal genome size, genes are tightly packed, many copies of small genome
-plasmids are small and circular
- bacteria and archaea cna put DNA into environment so cells can take it up.
energy source: light
carbon source:CO2 and other related compounds
energy source: inorganic chemicals
Carbon source: CO2
energy source: light
carbon source: organic compunds
energy source: organinc compounds
carbon source: organinc compounds
Prokaryotes, Oxygen and Metabolism.
must use O2 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it
archaea that produce methane as a byproduct of their metabolism
are obligate anaerobes
are actinmycetes (make own antibiotics to protect themselves from other prokaryotes)
bacteria. blue green pigment
self suffecient, plant like (oxygen photosynthesis)
some filaments have nitrogen fixers.
absorb nutrients from living host
methanontrophs- feed on methane
-anaerobic in archaea
-aerobic in proteobacteria
symbiont is a prokaryote
-2 chloroplast membrane
Eukaryote with modifies mitochondria
- complex unicells
- 2 types of movement
--- flagella swim forwards and twist
--- metaboli, they scrunch and move forward
ex. Euglena , found in farm ponds. red Caratenoid pigment
Eukaryotes with modified mitochondria
**2 ways they cool the earth 1. remove CO2 is they sink like plankton 2. reflect light which cools earth
eukarya with modified mitochondria
- same accessory pigemtns as plants, chlorophyll and canateroids.
-several groups, many body forms
sexual reproduction of chromosomes. having 1 set of chromosomes