PCR is a common technique used to amplify large portions of specified gene sequences. What does the acronym PCR stand for?
polymerase chain reaction
In a molecule of DNA:
complementary bases are stabilized by hydrogen bonds
phosphodiester bonds connect one sugar to the next
a free phosphate group is on the 5' end. a free hydroxyl group is on the 3' end
DNA is now often used as evidence in criminal trials. It is particularly useful because it can be found in:
hair, semen, saliva, dead skin cells
Which of the following is required for DNA replication?
a DNA template, deoxynucleotriphosphates, DNA polymerase, primase
Looking at a cytosine nucleotide triphosphate molecule; the second carbon counting clockwise from oxygen on the deoxyribose is attached to:
In the semiconservative model of DNA replication the newly synthesized DNA molecule is comprised of:
one old strand and one new one.
An organism cultured from a single cell of another organism that is genetically identical to the other organism is called:
Most genes come in alternative forms called:
Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts in DNA?
adenine and thymine & guanine and cytosine
A PCR (polymerase chain reaction) can only be used to amplify DNA if:
the sequences of the regions flanking the target region are known.
What is the most common reason why DNA analyses overturn incorrect criminal convictions?
DNA evidence is much more reliable an identifier of an individual than eyewitness accounts.
Which of the following statements about DNA replication are correct?
DNA replication proceeds in a 5' → 3' direction.
DNA replication requires the presence of a primer.
During the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), two strands of DNA are separated by:
exposure to heat.
The full set of an individual organism's DNA is called its:
Why is it necessary to add primers to a test tube in which you want to perform a PCR on a specific gene of interest?
Without primers, the polymerase would not be able to adhere to the DNA sequence.
Chargaff's rule states:
that the number of purines equals the number of pyrimidines & the number of thymines equals the number of adenines.
Which of the following is TRUE about selective breeding and genetically modified organisms?
Farmers have been able to produced new varieties of crops by selective breeding alone.
In semiconservative replication:
after one round of replication each new double stranded DNA molecule consists of one parental and one daughter strand
each parental strand provides a template that attracts complementary bases
The structure of the double helix is stable due to proper arrangement of the bases, the two strands must lie ___ each other.
If a person inherits a faulty DNA repair system, they will have higher chance of coming down with which disease?
Which is the correct order of steps in the process of genetic engineering?
chop up DNA, amplify it, insert it into bacterial cells, grow colonies, and identify colonies
Kary Mullis won Nobel Prize for his creation of powerful technique that revolutionized molecular genetics & biotech fields. What is his creation?
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Which of the following is NOT true about DNA?
Humans lack DNA in their brain cells.
Diabetes is to insulin as __________ is to __________.
dwarfism, human growth hormone
What was so groundbreaking about the "double" part of the double helix molecule?
It suggested how genetic information could be copied and inherited.
"Fast flushers" are people who lack:
a functional enzyme that metabolizes alcohol.
During replication, complementary nucleotide chains are assembled from single nucleotides by:
The formation of chromatin structure is mediated by:
Base excision repair is used to repair DNA damage. Which of the following statements about base excision repair is correct?
DNA ligase seals the nick between the newly synthesized DNA and the rest of the DNA strand
DNA polymerase I adds the correct bases
The excision repair proteins excise the damaged base and some adjacent bases
If the start sequence (codon) on an mRNA reads "AUG", what does the base sequence read on the initiator tRNA, carrying methionine?
The double helix model of DNA suggested by Watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because:
it explained how genetic material could be duplicated by means of the complementary strands.
In a PCR (polymerase chain reaction), different primers anneal to the template DNA @ different temps, annealing temperature of the primer depends on:
its melting temperature.
In humans, genes make up ______ of the DNA
less than 5%
What is the most common reason that DNA analyses overturn incorrect criminal convictions?
In more than three-quarters of the cases overturned by DNA analysis, inaccurate eyewitness testimony played an important role in the original guilty verdict.
DNA replication begins when __ breaks hydrogen bonds btwn base pairs @ __. While replicating 2 strands form open portions in double helix called __
helicase; origin of replication; replication forks
A DNA double helix must be separated into two single strands in order for replication to proceed. The enzymes that catalyze this "unzipping" are:
Thermus aquaticus is a bacterium that lives at very high temperatures. The T. aquaticus DNA polymerase is used in polymerase chain reaction because:
the T. aquaticus DNA polymerase can withstand the high temperatures of the polymerase chain reaction.
In any DNA molecule, the number of guanine bases will:
always be equal to the number of cytosine bases.
Which of the following repair methods occur during DNA replication?
A single strand of DNA has:
a 5’ end, which consists of a carbon attached to a phosphate group, and a 3’ end, which consists of a carbon attached to a hydroxyl group.
1928 Fredrick Griffith experiment:
Because all genetic information for the development of multicellular organism is present in the zygote:
the cell nuclei of a multicellular organism are, with few exceptions, genetically identical (a phenomenon known as "the principle of nuclear equivalence").
Which of the following are always the same in every unit of the DNA molecule?
the sugar and phosphate group
Which of the following about DNA is FALSE?
The number of chromosomes increases with the complexity of the organism.
Why does DNA replication proceed in a 5′ to 3′ direction?
This is the only chemical configuration in which DNA polymerase can add bases.
As helicases unwind DNA down the replication fork structural strain is created in molecule of DNA, strain is relieved by specialized proteins called:
Russian-American biochemist Phoebus Levene
DNA is a macromolecule that stores information. Which component of the DNA is the source of this information?
are three-dimensional conformations found in many DNA-binding proteins.
Looking at a cytosine nucleotide triphosphate molecule; the third carbon counting clockwise from oxygen on the deoxyribose is attached to:
a hydroxyl group.
If you thought about DNA as the book of life, then:
the bases are the words and the sugars and phosphate groups are the binding.
Ninety-six percent of the base-pair sequences in chimps and humans are the same. This finding indicates that:
humans are more closely related to chimps than to any other species on earth.