If a sequence of DNA is 5′-AAA TTT CCC-3′, the RNA that results from the transcription of this sequence will read:
3′-UUU AAA GGG-5′
Which is the correct chronological order of the binding of tRNA molecules to the sites on the large subunit of the ribosome?
A (amino acid) → P (polypeptide) → E (exit)
The mechanism by which the information contained in DNA is coded into a complementary RNA copy is called:
How does RNA differ from DNA?
RNA contains the sugar ribose, while DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose
There is more than one form of RNA within the cell
RNA can function as an enzyme, DNA cannot
RNA has the uracil as one of its bases, DNA does not
During transcription, at the point where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine, ______ is added to the mRNA.
Which of the following modifications occur to a primary transcript (pre-mRNA) of a eukaryotic gene before it leaves the nucleus?
A poly-A tail is added to the 3′ end
The exons are spliced together
A G cap is added to the 5′ end
The introns are removed
When a triplet of bases in the coding sequence of DNA is GCA, the corresponding codon for the mRNA that is transcribed from it is:
The codon AUG that codes for methionine is also known as:
From DNA to protein involves which series of events?
In order for translation to occur:
there must be large numbers of free amino acids present in the cytosol.
Genotype is to phenotype as:
recipe is to cookie.
Which of the following correctly describes the flow of information during gene expression?
DNA → mRNA → tRNA → amino acid
The genetic code is written in three letter words using a four letter alphabet. The maximum number of codons possible in the genetic code is:
"The sequence of the DNA strand that is transcribed is complementary and antiparallel to the mRNA that is produced." What does this statement mean?
mRNA contains the corresponding base (i.e., G instead of C) to the original DNA base and runs in the opposite direction of the DNA template strand.
During transcription the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a RNA molecule by:
Which of the following is NOT an important step in the manufacturing and secretion of a protein within a eukaryotic cell?
Enzymes in the rough ER manufacture lipids.
The process of using the information encoded in mRNA molecules to assemble polypeptides from amino acids is called:
RNA polymerase catalyzes the synthesis of:
Alternate versions of a gene are called _______________. They can code for different ________________ of the same character.
The expression of a gene to form a polypeptide occurs in two major steps. What are these two steps in their correct chronological order?
transcription and then translation
During translation, an mRNA molecule is used as a set of instructions to assemble amino acids into a polypeptide chain in a particular order by:
Transcription is like copying a recipe onto a notecard, EXCEPT:
the copy is made in code.
A partial sequence of the molecule bovine ribonuclease-A is "Lys-Glu-Thr-Ala-Ala-Ala-Lys-Phe." Bovine ribonuclease-A is
Unlike DNA polymerases, RNA polymerases do not require:
Certain viruses are called retroviruses because:
they can transcribe DNA from RNA.
A given section of DNA with the sequence AATGGCTAT is transcribed. What is the corresponding sequence on the mRNA transcription?
When a researcher physically looks at a female cell in interphase, the inactivated X chromosome appears as a dark-staining dot. This is called a:
The central dogma of molecular biology states that:
DNA is transcribed into RNA which is translated into protein.
According to the central dogma of molecular biology:
information flows only from DNA to RNA to proteins, and not in the reverse direction.
Each codon on a DNA strand codes for:
a single amino acid.
In order for transcription to occur, the following three components are required:
a DNA template, ribonucleoside triphosphates, and RNA polymerase.
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it, and what is it replaced by?
thymine, replaced by uracil
What is the primary product of the transcription of eukaryotic genes?
Transcription and translation are mediated by:
During translation, chain elongation continues until:
a stop codon is encountered.
To start the transcription process, a large molecule, ________, recognizes a _________.
RNA polymerase; promoter site
Transcription of all genes in an operon begins with the binding of ________ to a regulatory sequence called a ________.
RNA polymerase; promoter
Of 3 positions in a codon, which would show most variation if one were to compare the coding part of homologous genes between 2 different species?
the third position
Chemical mutagen that specifically disrupts base uracil but leaves all other intact. Which step in DNA expression/replication would mutagen disrupt?
transcription & translation
Which of the following molecules is NOT DIRECTLY involved in translation?