Copernicus pursued interest in
Pope called on Copernicus o reform the Julian calendar, responded that reform of the calendar required reform in astronomy
Explained the fact that some objects such as cannonballs fall to earth but others (stars and planets) seem weightless relative to Earth b/c of their composition
All earthbound matter fall because it is naturally attracted to earth
Tried to explain the planets “backward” motion by attributing “epicycles”
Epicycles: small circular orbits within the larger orbit
Based on Copernicus’s calculations
Calendar we use today
Other countries use for business purposes
Polish astronomer who initiated the Scientific Revolution by proposing that the earth and other planets orbit the sun.
Book The Revolution of the Heavenly Orbs (only saw on deathbed)
German astronomer who developed three laws of planetary motion, known as Kepler’s laws, which mathematically confirmed the Copernican heliocentric theory.
Planets traveled in elliptical movement
Italian physicist and astronomer who provided evidence supporting the heliocentric theory and helped develop the science of mechanics.
Invented Telescope, compass, modern scientific method
Studied in Venice
Book: The Starry Messenger
4 planets saw: jupiter
Drew water colors of the moon
Arrested from church, found guilty, said sun was center of the universe, finally said church was right, when walking out said they were wrong again, put on house arrest
French philosopher and mathematician who emphasized skepticism and deductive reasoning in his most influential treatise, Discourse on Method. He offered the first alternative physical explanation of matter after the Copernican revolution.
“I think therefore I am”
human reason to understand universe
England’s lord chancellor during the reign of James I and author of influential works encouraging theempirical scientific method and inductive reasoning
English physicist, mathematician, and natural philosopher. His mathematical computation of the laws ofgravity and planetary motion, which he combined with a fully developed theory of inertia, completed the explanation for motion initiated by Nicholas Copernicus.
Father of calculus (called fluctions)
Danish astronomer and first European to collect new astronomical data by using instruments to observe the celestial bodies.
Most brilliant mind of his generation
Drew attention to Limits of scientific knowledge
Stressed importance of mathematical representations of phenomena
Built one of first calculating machines
Invented probability theory
best known for a series of experiments he performed dealing with air pressures
Dissecting human corps (forbidden)
Famous for giving detailed anatomical drawings
Circulation of blood, Heart
Musician, linguist, philosopher
Most well known female in scientific revolution
Entomologist (studies insects)
Discovered spider that ate birds in tropics & no one believed it until a male discovered the same thing years later
Natural philosopher, extensive writings criticized
Early feminist, worked hard for education of women