In a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in which the frequency of A alleles (p) is 0.6, the expected frequency of aa individuals is:
A locally interbreeding group within a geographic population is called:
a Mendelian population.
Most mutations are
random with respect to the environmental needs of the organism in which the mutation takes place.
The appropriate unit for defining and measuring genetic variation is the:
Which of the following populations is most likely to be close to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
a population of 1 million fruit flies living in a habitat with little environmental fluctuation that has no other populations of fruit flies nearby
Gene flow means most nearly the same as:
movement of individuals between populations.
Which of the following statements about the relationship between humans and evolution is FALSE?
Because evolutionary processes are operating today just as they have been since life first appeared on Earth, humans have not influenced evolutionary processes.
In an extremely large population with no selection, mutation, or migration, how many generations of random mating will it take for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to be reached?
The Hardy-Weinberg model predicts how _________ are transferred from one generation to the next.
Which of the following is NOT a reason cited for why adaptive radiations are more common on island archipelagos than on continents?
increased mutation rates on islands
The phenotype of an organism is:
its physical characteristics.
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a null hypothesis that assumes all of the following forces are absent EXCEPT:
DNA transcription & glycolosis.
While on the voyage of the HMS Beagle, Darwin:
nurtured his love of studying nature, exploring plant and animal diversity, and collecting fossils.
Natural selection decreases genetic variability in a population. This statement is:
sometimes correct, especially in cases of stabilizing selection.
The Hardy-Weinberg model can determine the number of individuals with a homozygous dominant genotype by focusing on which term?
All of the following must be true of theoretical populations in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium EXCEPT:
The population is subject to assortative mating.
What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?
Artificial selection requires human intervention, whereas natural selection does not require human intervention.
In a population in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium:
allele frequencies do not change over time.
In a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in which the frequency of A alleles (p) is 0.4, the expected frequency of Aa individuals is:
A population is said to be polymorphic for a gene locus if it has at least:
two different alleles at that locus.
The correct equation illustrating the Hardy-Weinberg principle is:
2pq + p2 + q2 = 1
Genetic variation is maintained in populations through all of the following processes EXCEPT:
glycolysis & stabilizing selection.
A bimodal distribution in a trait is most likely to be caused by _____ selection.
A breeder of thoroughbreds selects only the fastest horses for breeding stock. This is an example of artificial ____________ selection.
Which biologist first described evolution as "descent with modification?"
If evolution has occurred:
the allele frequencies in a population have changed.
The average time to death from starvation in a fruit fly is about 20 hours. Selecting for increased starvation resistance in fruit flies:
can produce populations in which the average time to death from starvation is 160 hours.
Which of the following is a statement that describes the concept of convergent evolution?
Organisms that are not directly related develop similar traits.
Most copies of rare recessive alleles in a sexual species are carried by individuals that are:
heterozygous for the rare allele.
Georges Cuvier’s discovery of fossils of Irish elk and giant ground sloths:
demonstrated that extinction must occur.
Why is it that creationism can never be accepted as a scientific explanation of the origin of life?
Because the ideas of creationism cannot be tested through experiment and observation.
To demonstrate evolution by natural selection, all of the following conditions must be satisfied EXCEPT:
In genetics, the coexistence in the same population of two distinct hereditary types based on different alleles is also referred to as:
When a group of individuals colonizes a new habitat, the event is likely to be an evolutionary event because:
small founding populations are rarely genetically representative of the initial population.
In the 1790s, Georges Cuvier found the fossil remains of mastodons. This conflicted with the prevailing world view in Europe because:
it meant that extinction must occur, since nothing resembling mastodons existed on earth at that time.
_____ selection favors organisms that have character values at both extremes of the phenotypic distribution.
In the equation illustrating Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, q2 represents:
the frequency of individuals homozygous for allele q in a population.
In a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in which the frequency of A alleles (p) is 0.3, the expected frequency of Aa individuals is
For a population to evolve, its members must
possess heritable variation.
Which statement about variation is most correct?
All new alleles are the result of nucleotide variability.
Frequency-dependent selection will often
help to maintain a stable polymorphism.
Darwin used the term "natural selection" because he was familiar with artificial selection in which group of organisms?
Genetic drift will have the greatest effects for populations:
that are very small.
Thomas Malthus's 1798 work, "Essay on the Principle of Population," greatly influenced Darwin. Which statement best summarizes Malthus's idea?
People reproduce much more quickly than their resources do. This results in competition for food and space, and in suffering and death.
Natural selection means most nearly the same as:
differential reproductive success.
Under the right conditions, which type of selection is most likely to lead to the formation of new species?
All of the following occur during a population bottleneck EXCEPT:
Disruptive selection occurs when:
individuals with extreme values of a trait have greater fitness than individuals with intermediate values of the trait.
When traits are under ________ control, the resulting phenotypes are normally distributed. These non-discrete traits are ___________ characters.
Charles Darwin spent time on the Beagle:
after graduating from college, while serving as the companion to the captain on the surveying ship.
Tiktaalik appears to:
represent a transitional species, somewhere between fish and land animals.
__________, or hybrid vigor, refers to the superiority of one or more characteristics of crossbred organisms, compared with inbred organisms.
Which of the study organisms below is NOT properly paired with the evolutionary mechanism that it was used as an example of?
pigeons; nonrandom mating
All of the following are types of natural selection EXCEPT:
Errors sometimes occur when DNA duplicates itself. Why might that be a good thing?
New genes can enter the population and be acted upon by evolution.
Which statement is NOT true of the phenotype of an organism?
The phenotype of an organism is caused solely by the environment.
leads to more homozygotes than predicted by Hardy-Weinberg.
Anatomical homology in vertebrate forelimbs is considered to be evidence for evolution because:
similarities among vertebrate forelimbs suggest that they evolved from a common ancestor.
Extensive inbreeding usually results in increased _________ and decreased ________ in a population.
Which of the following statements about mutations is FALSE?
Mutations always decrease an organism’s fitness.
Select from the choices below the statement that best describes the effect of the migration of individuals into a population.
Migration of individuals into a population generally increases the genetic variability within a population.