Basic trust vs. mistrust (birth-1 year)
From warm, responsive care, infants gain a sense of trust, or confidence, that the world is good. Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (1-3 years)
Using new mental and motor skills, children want to choose and decide for themselves. Autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame the child.
Newborns: global arousal states of pleasant (content) and unpleasant (distress).
6-10 weeks: Parent’s communication evokes a broad grin called the social smile.
3-4 months: Infants begin to laugh at very active stimuli. Infants perceive facial expressions as organized patterns and can match the emotion in voices and faces.
(Mary Ainsworth): A procedure involving short separations from and reunions with the parent that assesses the quality of the attachment bond.
Infants use parent as a secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger. When the parent returns, they actively seek contact and their crying is reduced immediately.