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**Constitutional Isomers**
**Constitutional Isomers **
**1** pair of **Non-bonding Electrons**
**Formal Charge**
**Formal Charge**

**1.) **Determine __appropriate__ **number** of __valence e-__ for an atom

**2.) **Determine whether the atom **exhibits** the **appropriate** **number** of __electrons__
__Negative__ (**-**)
__Positive__ (**+**)
**Induction **
*Withdrawal of electron density* that occurs when a bond is shared by two atoms of __DIFFERING__ __E.N__.

__Covalent Bonds__

**Wave Function **__Notation__
__Wave function__ indicates that atoms posse distinct __energy__ **levels** making the __energy__ __of__ __electrons__
** ψ**^{2} (Psi Squared)^{ }
**ψ**^{2} (Psi Squared)

**Electron Density**
**Atomic Orbital**
**AO**
**Atomic Orbital**
**Atomic Orbital**
__Nonpolar__ Covalent Bonds
**Molecular Orbital**

(__Amount__ of partial charge) **x **

**Dipole Moment **

**Charge**
*e*
__Dipole moment__
**More massive **compounds have **___** boiling points
__V__alence __s__hell __e__lectron *p*air *r*epulsion
*sp*^{3} Hybridize
__Tetrahedral__ bond angles
__Steric Number__: **4**__Number of Lone pairs__: **0**

__Hybridization__: **sp**^{3}__Geometry__: **Tetrahedral**
__Steric Number__: **4**__Number of Lone pairs__: **1**

__Hybridization__: **sp**^{3}

__Geometry__: **Trigonal Pyramidal**
__Steric Number__: **4**__Number of Lone pairs__: **2**

__Hybridization__: **sp**^{3}

__Geometry__: **Bent**
__Steric Number__:** 3**__Number of Lone pairs__: **1**

__Hybridization__: **sp**^{3}

__Geometry__: **Bent**

**Trigonal **** Planar**
**Linear**

**Bent**
__2__ Lone Pairs
**2**** **Lone Pairs
**0** Lone Pairs
**0** Lone Pairs
**1** Lone Pair
**1** Lone Pair
**1** Lone Pair
**1**** **Lone Pair
**0** Lone Pairs
**0** Lone Pairs
**0** Lone Pairs
**0** Lone Pairs

(Define)

- Same Molecular Formula
from each other in the way they are__DIFFER____CONNECTED__

-Posses __DIFFERENT__

- Physical Properties
- Names

Covalent Bond

- Two atoms
a pair of electrons__SHARING__ **E.N.**__difference__=than__LESS__**0.5**

Valence Electrons

- Electrons in the
shell**outermost** - Each atom's
determines number of e'__group #__

Octet Rule

Second row elements **(C, N, O, F) **can **NOT** have more than __FOUR__ bonds

Lone Pairs

(unshared electrons)

(Define)

Atoms that __doesn't__ exhibit appropriate number of __valence__ __electrons__

(Calculation Steps)

Atom's__ Group number __indicates

Number of Valence Electrons

Formal Charge

- Atoms has excess amount of electrons
e- than atom's**MORE**allows**group #**

Formal Charge

- Atoms is
electrons__MISSING__ electrons atom's__LESS__**group #**

Polar Covalent Bond

**E.N.**difference =**0.5-1.7**- Electrons are
__NOT____shared____EQUALLY__

Ionic Bond

**E.N.**__difference__**= < 1.7**- Electrons
__NOT__at all__shared__

Induction causes:

Partial Charges

Negative Partial Charge Notation

δ−

Positive Partial Charge Notation

δ+

(Define)

Shifting of electrons __WITHIN__ their orbitals results in a dipole moment

Special Cases, what type of bond?

- C--Br
- C--I

- C--Br
- C--I

Wave Equation

Takes into account the **wavelike behavior of an electron** that is **in** the **electric** **field** of the **proton**

Each Wave Function corresponds to

An allowed **ENERGY** __LEVEL__ for the electron

ψ

- Psi (Greek)

Quantized

___________of*finding*the________in*that*____________

- Indicates the
__probability__ofthe*finding*in**electron***that*__location__

- Generating an
**___**of an**______****_______.**

Generating an **image** of an __atomic orbital__

(__Define__)

Associated with the probability of finding an electron in a particular region of space

(__Appreciation__)

(__Define__)

- A 3-D plot of ψ
^{2 }of a wave function. of__Region__that can__space__*accommodate*__electron__**density**

(__Examples__)

*s**p**d**f*

Orbital

Region of space that can be occupied by an electron

Covalent Bonds are either ____ or ___-___

Polar or Nonpolar

Bonded atoms share electrons evenly

Polar Covalent Bonds

One of the atoms attracts the electrons more than the other

Constructive Interference

Produces a wave with amplitude

(__Appreciation__)

MOs

Molecular Orbital

-->Is more complete, why?

Includes destructive and constructive interference

# of MOs created must equal # of ___ ___ used

Atomic Orbitals

Dipole

Dipole Moment

(__Distance__ the __partial__ __charges__ are __separated__)

1 debye = ___

10^{-18} esu • cm

esu

(__Appreciation__)

Electrostatic unit of charge

1 electron charge = ___ __esu__

4.80x10^{-10}

(__notation-formula__)

μ

(__Notation-Formula__)

Formula

sp hybridized carbon

sp2 Hybridized carbon

sp2 Hybridized carbons

PROTIC

Compounds with **H** atoms that are capable of forming H-bonds are called

The __ the surface area of a molecule, the more temporary dipole interactions are possible

The __GREATER__ the surface area of a molecule, the more temporary dipole interactions are possible

HIGHER BOILING POINTS

Steric Number

of electron pairs (bonding and nonbonding) that are__Number__from each other__repelling__- Determines geometry

VSEPR

Geometry: **___**

Tetrahedral

109.5^{o}

Geometry

(Define)

Arrangement of atoms

How many __geometries__ are for sp^{3}

3

- Tetrahedral
- Trigonal Pyramidal
- Bent

How many __geometries__ are for sp^{2}

2

- Trigonal Planar
- Bent

-Hybridization: _______

-Geometry: ___________

-Hybridization: _______

-Geometry: ___________

-Hybridization: _______

-Geometry: ___________

-Hybridization: _______

-Geometry: ___________

Hund's Rule

Rule states one electron must be placed in each **degenerate** **orbital** __first__, *BEFORE* electrons are **paired** *up*

Aufbau Principle

- Lowest energy orbital filled first
- Rule that determines the order in which orbitals are filled by electrons

Pauli Exclusion principle

An atomic orbital or molecular orbital can accommodate a __maximum__ of __two__ __electrons__ with __opposite__ **spin**

Formal charge generally ______ stability

DECREASES

+1 charge on an electronegative atom or -1 on a low electronegativity atom is especially _______.

unstable

COMPLETE OCTETS INCREASE _____.

stability

Tetrahedral

Trigonal

Pyramidal

Bent

Trigonal

Planar

Linear

Trigonal

Pyramidal

- # of Lone Pair(s)
- Steric #
- Hybridization

Lone Pair__1__- Steric #
__4__ - Hybridization
*sp*^{3}

- # of Lone Pair(s)
- Steric #
- Hybridization

Lone Pairs__0__- Steric #
__3__ - Hybridization
*sp*^{2}

- # of Lone Pairs
- Steric #
- Hybridization

Lone Pairs**0**- Steric #
__2__ - Hybridization
**sp**

- # of Lone Pairs
- Steric #
- Hybridization

Lone Pairs__2__- Steric #
__4__ - Hybridization
**sp**^{3}

Hybridization: **sp**^{3}

- Arrangement of e
^{- }pairs - Molecular Geometry

Hybridization: *sp*^{3}

- Arrangement of e- pairs:
__Tetrahedral__ - Molecular Geometry:
__Bent__

Hybridization: *sp*^{3}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs - Molecular Geometry

Hybridization: *sp*^{3}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:__Tetrahedral__ - Molecular Geometry:
__Tetrahedral__

Hybridization: *sp*^{3}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

Hybridization: *sp*^{3}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:__Tetrahedral__ - Molecular Geometry:
__Trigonal____Pyramidal__

Hybridization: *sp*^{2}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

Hybridization: *sp*^{2}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:__Trigonal____Planar__ - Molecular Geometry:
__Bent__

Hybridization: *sp*^{2}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

Hybridization: *sp*^{2}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:__Trigonal____Planar__ - Molecular Geometry:
__Trigonal____Planar__

Hybridization: *sp*

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:________ - Molecular Geometry:____________

Hybridization: *sp*^{2}

- Arrangement of e
^{-}pairs:__Linear__ - Molecular Geometry:
**Linear**

London Dispersion forces

Attractive forces between transient dipole moments, observed in alkanes

Factors that increase boiling point

→Hydrogen Bonding

→Increase in molecular weight

→Linear Structures

→Permanent Dipole moments
Hydrogen Bonding

Special type of dipole-dipole interaction

ONLY with N, O, F

About this deck

Author: Caitlyn D.

Created: 2014-05-30

Updated: 2014-06-01

Size: 85 flashcards

Views: 13

Created: 2014-05-30

Updated: 2014-06-01

Size: 85 flashcards

Views: 13

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