The ability to empathize with others and distinguish between right and wrong is called _____.
To study moral development, Kohlberg _____.
collected cross-sectional data by asking subjects of various ages to respond to stories that depicted moral dilemmas
Kohlberg believed his stages of moral development to be _____.
universal and invariant
Five-year-old Tyler believes "bad things are what you get punished for." Tyler is at Kohlberg's _____ level of morality.
During the preconventional level of moral development _____.
a) moral judgment is self-centered
b) right = what feels rewarding and doesn't get punished
c) rewards and punishment help dictate behavior
d) all of these options
Calvin would like to wear baggy, torn jeans and a nose ring, but he is concerned that others will disapprove. Calvin is at Kohlberg's _____ level of morality.
Officers in World War II, the Vietnam War, and the war in Bosnia have explained some of their behavior with the reasoning: "I was just following orders." This is an example of which stage of moral development:
law and order
Serena is one-month old and is not living up to her name. She is easily frustrated, tense, and reacts more than most infants when her schedule is upset. Thomas and Chess would categorize her as _____.
a difficult baby
During the _____ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying, or painful and unrewarding. During the _____ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency or insecurity.
trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inferiority
Forty-year-old Carl is very proud that he has the fastest car on the road and the finest house on the block, but feels lonely and isolated when he goes home to his family. Carl is likely to be in Erikson's _____ stage of development.
generativity vs. stagnation
According to research, after a divorce, children may _____.
a) do better without tension and fighting in the home
b) have a poor self-concept
c) experience more social, psychological, and academic difficulties
d) all of these options
_____ has consistently been found to be a key factor in successful marriages.
After retirement, Effie continued her gardening, volunteered for an agency that mentors young businesswomen, and traveled to new locations every summer. Effie exemplifies the _____ theory of aging.
The greatest challenge for the elderly in the U.S. is
What are the criticisms that have been lodged against Erikson’s Psychosocial stages?
a) They appear to be more valid for males than females
b) The stages are difficult to test scientifically
c) The labels are not necessarily appropriate cross-culturally
d) Both B and C**
e) None of the above
According to Erikson, humans progress through eight stages of psychosocial development. Which of the following is the CORRECT sequence for the "successful" completion of the first four stages?
Trust -> autonomy -> initiative -> industry
Pregnancy during adolescence also carries with it considerable health risk for:
both mother and child
Rates of mothers’ repeated feelings of sadness and tension were shown to be associated with _____.
mother's age at birth of first child
Which of the following is associated with resilience in children?
Positive reinforcement in early childhood
Which of the following concepts is considered inevitable, permanent, universal, and nonfunctional?
Which of the following is the correct sequence for Kubler-Ross's stage theory of dying?
Denial ..anger ..bargaining .. depression..acceptance