Both the ________ and ______ use sensory and motor neurons.
In the SNS somatic motor neurons innervate ____________, causing conscious voluntary movement.
ANS motor neurons innervate _________,________ and _______.
ANS motor neurons can either excite or inhibit cells in the ______.
A single lower motor neuron axon extends uninterrupted from the spinal cord to one or more muscle fibers in the _____.
The SNS innervates skeletal muscle fibers, and visceral sensory neurons provide
input to activate ____.
Parasympathetic activity can affect one group of organs (with/without) necessarily having to “turn on” all other organs.
Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons originate in either the brainstem or the lateral gray matter of the _____ spinal cord regions.
Ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic division are found where?
1. Either terminal ganglia, which are located close to the target organ, or,
2. Intramural ganglia, which are located within the wall of the target organ.
First three of these nerves convey parasympathetic innervation to the head.
† Vagus nerve is the source of parasympathetic stimulation for the thoracic and most abdominal organs.
Increased sympathetic activity results in the increased alertness and metabolic activity necessary for these activities as well as in times of ____.
In mass activation, a large number of ganglionic neurons activate many effector organs.
The cervical portion of each sympathetic trunk is partitioned into only three sympathetic trunk ganglia, as opposed to the eight cervical spinal nerves.What are these ganglia called?
the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia
† Carry postganglionic sympathetic axons from the sympathetic trunk to the spinal nerve.
GREY RAMI LOOK LIKE EXIT RAMPS
Sympathetic information that started out in the thoracolumbar region can be dispersed to all where?
All preganglionic neurons originate in lateral gray horns of ____ regions of the spinal cord.
Preganglionic axons travel with T1-L2 spinal nerves. Preganglionic axons immediately leave spinal nerve and travel through ______ to enter sympathetic trunk. Once inside the sympathetic trunk preganglionic axons may remain at the level of entry or travel superiorly or inferiorly within the sympathetic trunk.
Axons exit sympathetic trunk ganglia by what means?
1. spinal nerve pathway
2. postganglionic sympathetic nerve pathway
3. splanchnic nerve pathway
4. adrenal medulla pathway
† Usually all organs are innervated by both divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
† Maintains homeostasis through autonomic reflexes that occur in the innervated organs. Many visceral effectors are innervated by postganglionic axons from both ANS divisions.
Collections of sympathetic postganglionic axons and parasympathetic preganglionic axons, as well as some visceral sensory axons.
Close to one another, but they do not interact or synapse with one another.
Provide a complex innervation pattern to their target organs.
Increased sympathetic activity increases heart rate and blood pressure, while
2. Increased parasympathetic activity decreases heart rate
1. Parasympathetic pathway causes bronchoconstriction and increased secretion from mucous glands of the bronchial tree
2. Sympathetic innervation causes bronchodilation
Axons innervate viscera within the pelvic region
ANS helps maintain homeostasis through the involuntary activity of ________ or _______ reflexes.
Other autonomic reflexes include alteration of heart rate, changes in respiratory rate and depth, regulation of digestive system activities, and alteration of pupil diameter. What are these reflexes comparable to?
Classic autonomic reflex involves what?