Process/Application Layer protocols
Telnet, FTP, TFTP, SMTP
terminal emulation program
File Transfer Protocal: connection oriented service that allows you to transfer files.
Trivial FTP: connectionless file transfer program.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol: Send-mail program.
Host-to-Host layer protocols
Transmission Control Protocal: connection oriented protocol that provides reliable network service by using acknowledgements and flow control.
User Datagram Protocol: connectionless protocol that provides low overhead and is considered unreliable.
Internet Layer Protocols
IP, ARP, RARP, ICMP
Internet Protocol: connectionless protocol that provides network address and routing through an internetwork.
Address Resolution Protocol: finds a hardware address from a known IP address.
Reverse ARP: finds and IP address from a known hardware address.
Internet Control Message Protocol: provides diagnostic and destination unreachable messages.
Class A range
Class B range
Class C range
Class A private
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
Class B private
172.16.0.0 - 172.31.255.255
Class C private
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
Network address of all zeros
Interpreted to mean "this network or segment"
Network address of all 1's
Interpreted to mean "all networks"
Reserved for loopback test.
Node address of all 0's
Interpreted to mean "network address"
Node address of all 1's
Interpreted to mean "all nodes"
Entire IP address set to all 0's
Used by Cisco routers to designate the default route. Could mean "any network"
Entire IP address set to all 1's
Broadcast to all nodes on the current network.
Protocol Number: 1
Protocol: IP in IP tunneling
Protocol Number: 4
Protocol Number: 9
Protocol Number: 88
Protocol Number: 89
Protocol Number: 41
Protocol Number: 47
Protocol: Layer 2 Tunneling (L2TP)
Protocol Number: 115