such as operating systems and utility programs, consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of a computer and its devices.
Two types of system software are
operating systems and utility programs
a set of programs containing instructions that coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.
A cross-platform program is one that runs __
the same on multiple operating systems
The operating system that a computer uses sometimes is called the ____
With Windows Vista, a warm boot can be performed by ____
clicking a button on the task bar, then a Start menu button, then a Lock menu button, then a command on the Lock button menu
7. During a cold boot on a personal computer, the POST (power-on self test) results are compared with data in a ____ chip.
is the process of starting or restarting a computer.
is the core of an operating system that maintains the computer’s clock, starts applications, and assigns the computer’s resources, such as devices, programs, data, and information.
The kernel is memory ____, which means it remains in memory while the computer is running.
The ____ is firmware that contains a computer’s startup instructions
The BIOS executes a series of tests, collectively called the ____, which check the various system components including the buses, system clock, adapter cards, RAM chips, mouse, keyboard, and drives.
In Windows Vista, the ____ consists of several files that contain the system configuration information.
In Windows Vista, the ____ contains a list of programs that open automatically when users boot the computer.
If a hard disk is damaged, a computer can be booted from a(n) ____ disk, which is usually a CD that contains a few system files that will start the computer.
is the drive from which a personal computer s
interface controls how users enter data and instructions into a computer and how information is displayed on the screen.
With a ____, users interact with menus and visual images such as icons, buttons, and other objects to issue commands.
graphical user interface (GUI)
Computers with more than ____ of RAM work with the Aero interface in Windows Vista as shown in the accompanying figure
The Aero interface in Windows Vista shown in the accompanying figure offers ____.
an enhanced visual look
additional navigation options
Windows Vista ____ offers the Aero interface (shown in the accompanying figure) to basic users.
In a ____ like the one shown in the accompanying figure, a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard (such as function keys or key combinations) to enter data and instructions.
The set of instructions entered into a computer that uses the interface shown in the accompanying figure is called the ____ language.
A single user/single ____ operating system allows only one user to run one program at a time.
A single user/____ operating system allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time
Smart phones and other small computing devices often use a ____ operating system.
single user/single tasking
Networks, servers, mainframes, and supercomputers allow hundreds to thousands of users to connect at the same time, and thus are __
With ____ multitasking, the operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed.
operating system enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously.
operating system supports two or more processors running programs at the same time.
is a computer that continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost.
The purpose of memory ____ is to optimize the use of random access memory (RAM).
With ____ memory, the operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium, usually the hard disk, to function as additional RAM.
The area of the hard disk used for virtual memory is called a(n) ____ file because it exchanges data, information, and instructions between memory and storage.
With virtual memory, which is illustrated in the accompanying figure, a ____ is the amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time.
With virtual memory, which is illustrated in the accompanying figure, the technique of swapping items between memory and storage, called ____, is a time-consuming process for the computer.
such as sending data to the printer in the accompanying figure, is an operation the processor manages.
is a segment of memory or storage, such as the disk in the accompanying figure, in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device
A process called ____, which is illustrated in the accompanying figure, sends documents to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer.
In the accompanying figure, multiple documents line up in a(n) ____ in the buffer.
In the accompanying figure, a program called a print ____ intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue.
____ means the operating system automatically configures new devices as users install them.
Plug and Play
With an operating system, ____ can include fixes to bugs, enhancements to security, modifications to devices drivers, and the like
____ operating system is an operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network.
unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers, that identifies one specific user.
private combination of characters associated with a user name that allows access to certain computer resources.
software is privately owned software and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.
Windows ____ is Microsoft’s fastest, most reliable and efficient operating system to date, offering quicker application start up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security, and enhanced searching and organizing capabilities.
In Windows Vista, the Windows ____ feature protects your computer from spyware.
The latest version of the Macintosh operating system, Mac ____, is a multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by Apple.
____ is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s by scientists at Bell Laboratories.
Linux is ____ software, which means its code is provided for use, modification, and redistribution.
Windows ____ is an upgrade to Windows 2003 Server
Novell’s ____ is a server operating system designed for client/server networks.
Windows ____ is a scaled-down Windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment, and computing devices with limited functionality.
Windows ____ is an operating system that includes functionality, applications, and a user interface designed for specific types of devices.
A competing operating system to Windows Mobile is Palm ____, which runs on Palm-powered PDAs and smart phones.
is a specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents.
is a utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file.
is a utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.
utility allows users to copy selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium.
In the event a backup file is used, a(n) ____ program reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form
A personal ____ is a utility that detects and protects a computer from unauthorized intrusions.
is someone who tries to access a computer or network illegally
A screen ____ causes a monitor’s screen to display a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specified period of time.
The term, computer ____, describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission.
A ____ is malware that copies itself repeatedly, for example in memory or over a network, using up system resources and possibly shutting the system down
is malware that hides within or looks like a legitimate program, such as a screen saver.
is software that acts without a user’s knowledge and deliberately alters a computer’s operations.
A ____ does not replicate itself to other computers
is a utility that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or on incoming files.
A spyware ____ is a program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs.
filtering program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches a user’s inbox.
A pop-up ____ is a filtering program that stops pop-up ads from displaying on Web pages.
is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge or consent that secretly collects information about the user, often related to Web browsing habits.
is a program that removes or blocks certain items from being displayed.
Compressed files, sometimes called___
zipped files, usually have a .zip extension
A file ____ utility is a utility that shrinks the size of a file(s).
A file ____ utility is a utility that transforms the contents of a file or data from one format to another.
All sizes of computers typically use the same operating system.
Regardless of the size of the computer, most operating systems provide similar functions.
The boot process is very different for large and small computers.
A warm boot is the process of using the operating system to restart a computer.
Some parts of the operating system are resident; that is, these instructions remain on the hard disk until they are needed.
When a computer is turned on, the charge of electricity causes the processor chip to reset itself and find the ROM chip(s) that contains the BIOS.
The nexus is the core of an operating system that manages memory and devices.
Command-line interfaces like the one in the accompanying figure give a user less control to manage detailed settings.
A disadvantage of Linux is that it is available only in a command-line version like the one in the accompanying figure
When you purchase a computer, it usually includes a boot disk.
Users today typically run multiple programs concurrently.
A disadvantage of preemptive multitasking is the operating system loses control if one program stops operating properly
Even if users are working on multiple programs simultaneously, it is impossible to run out of RAM.
Because virtual memory is faster than RAM, users may notice the computer speeding up while it uses virtual memory
Some operating systems include a Web browser and an e-mail program, enabling users to begin accessing the Web and communicating with others as soon as they set up the Internet connection.
If the user name and password entered match the user name and password kept on file, a network operating system denies access to the user.
Network administrators can set up a network to decrypt data as it travels over a network to prevent unauthorized users from reading the data
The advantage of device-dependent operating systems is that users can retain existing application software and data even if they change computer models or vendors.
A device-dependent program runs on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers.
Client operating systems can operate with or without a network.
Application software is said to be downward compatible, meaning it will run on a new version of an operating system.
Microsoft has continually updated its Windows operating system, incorporating new features and functions with each subsequent version.
Windows Vista Ultimate includes all features of Windows Vista Home Premium and provides additional features designed to make mobile users’ computers more secure and easier to network.
In Windows Vista, the Windows SideShow feature connects to personalized mini-applications, called gadgets, such as weather, photos, or headline news.
In Windows Vista, the Windows Sidebar allows viewing of messages on a powered-off notebook computer equipped with a secondary display.
When programmers move application software from one UNIX version to another, they sometimes have to rewrite some of the programs
Power users seldom work with UNIX because of its rigidity and vulnerability.
Like other operating systems, Linux is proprietary software.
A server operating system typically resides on a client.
The difference between stand-alone operating systems that include networking capabilities and server operating systems is that network operating systems are designed specifically to support all sizes of networks, including medium- to large-sized businesses and Web servers.
Most editions of Windows Server 2008 include Hyper-V, which is a virtualization technology.
In addition to being a stand-alone operating system, UNIX also is a network operating system
Palm users can exchange information with other Palm users wirelessly.
Some devices with the Windows Mobile operating system support handwriting and voice input
The iPhone and iPod devices are multi-touch, meaning that they recognize multiple points of contact.
Stand-alone utilities typically offer improvements over those features built into an operating system or provide features not included in an operating system.
Few operating systems include any utility programs.
A shortcut is an icon on the desktop or in a folder that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file.
By compressing files, a backup utility program requires more storage space for the backup files than for the original files.
Instead of backing up to a local disk storage device, some users opt to back up their files using online storage.
When users press a key or move the mouse, a screen saver disappears and the screen returns to the previous state.
Ghosting is a severe problem with today’s displays.
The programmer of a virus, known as a virus author, intentionally writes a virus program.
One sign of a virus infection is that available memory is less than what should be available.
A Trojan horse copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network.
Some operating systems such as Windows Vista include uncompress capabilities.
When you receive a compressed file, you must zip it.
A compressed file takes up more storage space than the original file.
Some personal computer maintenance utilities continuously monitor a computer while it is used and repair problems before they occur.