when the carbs aren't able to be broken down by human digestive enzymes in the stomach and small intestine they pass into the colon; indigestible carbohydrates benefit health by increasing the amount of water and bulk in
the intestine, stimulating gastrointestinal motility; promoting the growth of a healthy microflora; and slowing nutrient absorption.
each 6-carbon glucose molecule is broken into 2 3-carbon pyruvate molecules, producing ATP even when oxygen in unavailable.When oxygen is available, aerobic metabolism can proceed;
Pyruvate loses a carbon as carbon dioxide to form acetyl-CoA, which is then broken down by the citric acid cycle to form 2 carbon dioxide molecules. Electrons released at each step pass to the electron transport chain where their energy is used to generate ATP and water is formed.
1. Glycolysis splits glucose, a 6-carbon molecule, into two molecules of pyruvate, a 3-carbon molecule; high-energy electrons (e–) and a small amount of ATP produced; each pyruvate either breaks down to produce more ATP or used to make glucose via gluconeogenesis
2.oxygen is available, pyruvate used to produce more ATP by removing 1 carbon as CO2 from each= 2-C molecule that combines with A to form acetyl-CoA
3. Each acetyl-CoA enters the citric acid cycle, where two carbons are lost as carbon dioxide,high-energy electrons are released, and a small amount of ATP is produced
4. electron transport chain accepts the high-energy
electrons released in previous steps and uses the energy to synthesize ATP. The electrons
are combined with oxygen and hydrogen to form water.
Since adequate dietary carbohydrate eliminates the need to use amino acids from protein to synthesize glucose
by high blood glucose levels due to either a lack of insulin or an unresponsiveness or resistance to insulin; The elevated glucose causes damage to the large blood vessels, leading to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke. It also causes changes in small blood vessels and nerves
long-term complications of diabetes include damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nerves
they are produced more rapidly than they can be used and thus accumulate in the blood. This elevation of ketones causes an increase in the acidity of the blood called ketoacidosis