A public health nurse is teaching the community about health promotion. Which information should the nurse include for innate immunity? Innate immunity is gained:
Which statement indicates teaching was successful regarding collectins? Collectins are produced by the:
A 20-year-old male received a knife wound to the arm during an altercation. Which of the following types of immunity was compromised?
The epithelial cells of the skin are a part of innate immunity.
Biochemical secretions that trap and kill microorganisms include:
Diminished colonization with Lactobacillus that occurs as a result of prolonged antibiotic treatment increases the risk for vaginal infections, such as vaginosis.
When an aide asks the nurse what is a purpose of the inflammatory process, how should the nurse respond?
A child fell off the swing and scraped the right knee. The injured area becomes painful. What else will the nurse observe upon assessment?
Edema at injured site
Increased vascular permeability and leakage of fluid out of the vessel cause edema at the site of injury.
A nurse recalls the mast cell, a major activator of inflammation, initiates the inflammatory response through the process of:
Which of the following individuals would be at greatest risk for an opportunistic infection?
A 24 year old who is immunocompromised
Opportunistic microorganisms can cause disease if the individual’s defenses are compromised.
The directional migration of leukocytes along a chemical gradient is termed:
ChemotaxisChemotaxis is the process by which leukocytes undergo directed migration.
A 20-year-old male shoots his hand with a nail gun while replacing roofing shingles. Which of the following cell types would be the first to aid in killing bacteria to prevent infection in his hand?
NeutrophilsNeutrophils are the predominant phagocytes in the early inflammatory site, arriving within 6 to 12 hours after the initial injury.
The predominant phagocyte of early inflammation is the:
Neutrophils are the predominant phagocytes in the early inflammatory site, arriving within 6 to 12 hours after the initial injury.
A 25-year-old female experiences a headache and takes aspirin for relief. A nurse recalls aspirin relieves the headache by:
Decreasing prostaglandin production
Aspirin is a prostaglandin inhibitor.
Time of release
Leukotrienes are released slower and longer than histamine.
A 25-year-old male is in a car accident and sustains a fracture to his left femur with extensive soft tissue injury. The pain associated with the injury is related to:
Kinins and prostaglandins
Prostaglandins cause increased vascular permeability, neutrophil chemotaxis, and pain by direct effects on nerves. Kinins also promote pain.
The complement, clotting, and kinin systems share which of the following characteristics?
Activation of a series of proenzymes
The complement system, the clotting system, and the kinin system are normally in inactive forms, but can activate in a series as proenzymes and are involved in the inflammatory process
Which statement indicates teaching was successful regarding the classic pathway of the complement system? The classic pathway of the complement system is activated by:
The classic pathway of the complement system is activated by antibodies of the immune system.
A patient has researched bradykinin on the Internet. Which information indicates the patient understands the functions of bradykinin? Bradykinin is involved in:
Increasing vascular permeability
Bradykinin increases vascular permeability.
After teaching the staff about the clotting system, which statement indicates teaching was successful? The end product of the clotting system is:
FibrinThe end product of the clotting system is fibrin
A 5-year-old male is diagnosed with a bacterial infection. Cultures of the bacteria revealed lipopolysaccharides on the bacterial cell surface. Which of the complement pathways would be activated in this case?
The alternative pathway is activated by several substances found on the surface of infectious organisms, such as those containing lipopolysaccharides.
female presents with edema of the cutaneous and mucosal tissue layers. condition is recurrent and seems to occur more often during stressful situations. The child is diagnosed with hereditary angioedema. Which of the following is deficient in this child?
C1 esterase inhibitorA genetic defect in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH deficiency) results in hereditary angioedema.
A nurse is preparing to teach on the subject of opsonins. Which information should the nurse include? Opsonins are molecules that:
Opsonins coat the surface of bacteria and increase their susceptibility to being phagocytized.
A 10-year-old male is diagnosed with a parasite. Which lab result should the nurse check for a response to the parasite?
Eosinophils serve as the body’s primary defense against parasites.
A 65-year-old female is diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer. She has developed muscle wasting. Which of the following substances would be produced in large quantities to eliminate the tumor cells and cause muscle wasting?
Tumor necrosis factor
Tumor necrosis factor causes muscle wasting.
When phagocytes begin to stick avidly to capillary walls, which process is occurring?
Both leukocytes and endothelial cells secrete substances that increase adhesion, or stickiness, causing the leukocytes to adhere more avidly to the endothelial cells in the walls of the capillaries and venules in a process called margination.
An infant develops a fever secondary to a bacterial infection. Which of the following most likely triggered the fever?
Interleukin-1 is responsible for fever production.
A 54-year-old male intravenous (IV) drug user is diagnosed with chronic hepatitis C. Testing revealed that he is a candidate for treatment. Which of the following could be used to treat his condition?
INFs are members of a family of cytokines that protect against viral infections.
A 35-year-old male is diagnosed with lobar pneumonia (lung infection). Which of the following exudates would be present in highest concentration at the site of this advanced inflammatory response?
Fibrinous exudates occur in the lungs of individuals with pneumonia.
During inflammation, the liver is stimulated to release plasma proteins, collectively known as:
Acute phase reactants
The synthesis of many plasma proteins by the liver is increased during inflammation. These proteins, which can be either proinflammatory or antiinflammatory in nature, are referred to as acute phase reactants.
A 3-year-old is eating in the sandbox. The sand was also being used by cats as a litter box and was contaminated with toxoplasmosis. Which of the following would most likely also be present?
Infections caused by bacteria such as toxoplasmosis can result in granuloma formation.
A 12-year-old male is fighting with another child when he receives a puncture wound from a pencil. The school nurse cleans and bandages the wound. After about 1 week, the wound would be in which phase of healing?
Resolution occurs when repaired tissue is approaching close to normal.
The macrophage secretion that stimulates procollagen synthesis and secretion is:
Transforming growth factor beta
Macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-beta to stimulate fibroblasts to secrete the collagen precursor procollagen.
The glass from the shattered window cut his face and neck. The scar, however, was raised and extended beyond the original boundaries of the wound. This pattern of scarring is caused by impaired:
Impaired production of collagen can cause surface overhealing, leading to a keloid or a hypertrophic scar.
The nurse notes the patient had an erythrocyte sedimentation done, and the results are quite elevated. The nurse would focus the care plan on which of the following conditions?
Common laboratory tests for inflammation measure levels of acute phase reactants. An increase in fibrinogen is associated with an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which is considered a good indicator of an acute inflammatory response.
Healing by secondary intention would occur in which of the following patients? A patient with a:
Stage 4 pressure ulcer
A patient with a stage IV pressure ulcer would heal by secondary intention.
The post-surgical patient is experiencing delayed wound healing. The dietician believes the delay is related to nutritional intake. A deficiency in which of the following substances could directly affect healing?
Most of the factors that interfere with the production of collagen in healing tissues are nutritional. Scurvy, for example, is caused by lack of ascorbic acid—one of the cofactors required for collagen formation by fibroblasts. The results of scurvy are poorly formed connective tissue and greatly impaired healing.
A nurse remembers the primary actions of the complement cascade include (select all that apply):
The actions of the complement cascade include increased vascular permeability and vasodilation, chemotaxis, opsonization, and cell killing. It does not involve vasoconstriction or increased clotting.
The nurse is assessing a patient with a diagnosis of inflammation. The nurse would expect to find which of the following signs and symptoms consistent with acute inflammation? (Select all that apply.)
The classic symptoms of acute inflammation include redness (erythema), heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Exudates would indicate infection, not inflammation.
The nurse identified each of the following clinical manifestations of inflammation. Which would the nurse classify as a local response? (Select all that apply.)
Local manifestations of inflammation are the result of the vascular changes associated with the inflammatory process, including vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. The symptoms include redness, heat, swelling, and pain.
Physical barriers that offer the body protection from damage and infection are located in the (select all that apply):
The physical barriers that cover the external parts of the human body offer considerable protection from damage and infection. These barriers are composed of tightly associated epithelial cells of the skin and of the linings of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tracts.