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The degree of belief that an estimated range of values ? more specifically, a high or low value-includes or covers the population parameter.

A nonprobability sample in which the selection of elements is determined by the researcher?s convenience.

A stratified sample in which elements sharing a characteristic are underrepresented or overrepresented in the sample.

A statistic based on sample observations that is used to estimate the numerical value of an unknown population parameter.

A probability sample that draws elements from a stratified population at a rate proportional to the size of the samples.

A procedure used to improve the representativeness of telephone samples by giving both listed and unlisted numbers a chance of selection.

The bias that occurs whenever some elements of a population are systematically excluded from a sample. It is usually due to an incomplete sampling frame or a nonprobability method of selecting elements.

The difference between a sample estimate and a corresponding population parameter that arises because only a portion of a population is observed.

Cluster Sample

A probability sample that is used when no list of elements exists. The sampling frame initially consists of clusters of elements.

Confidence

Convenience Sample

Disproportionate Sample

Element

A particular case or entity about which information is collected; the unit of analysis.

Estimator

Expected Value

The mean or average value of a sample statistic based on repeated samples from a population.

Nonprobability Sample

A sample for which each element in the total population has an unknown probability of being selected.

Population

All the cases or observations covered by a hypothesis; all the units of analysis to which a hypothesis applies.

Population Parameter

The incidence of a characteristic or an attribute in a population (not a sample).

Probability Sample

A sample for which each element in the total population has a known probability of being selected.

Proportionate Sample

Purposive Sample

A nonprobability sample in which a researcher uses discretion in selecting elements for observation.

Quota Sample

A nonprobability sample in which elements are sampled in proportion to their representation in the population.

Random Digit Dialing

Random Start

Selection of a number at random to determine where to start selecting elements in a systematic sample.

Sample

A subset of observations or cases drawn from a specified population.

Sample Bias

Sample Statistic

The estimator of a population characteristic or attribute that is calculated from sample data.

Sampling Distribution

*N* that, if known, permits the calculation of confidence intervals and the test of statistical hypotheses.

Sampling Error

Sampling Fraction

The population from which a sample is drawn. Ideally it is the same as the total population of interest to a study.

Sampling Frame

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Sampling Interval

The number of elements in a sampling frame divided by the desired sample size.

Sampling Unit

The entity listed in a sampling frame. It may be the same as an element, or it may be a group or cluster of elements.

Simple Random Sample

A probability sample in which each element has an equal chance of being selected.

Snowball Sample

A sample in which respondents are asked to identify additional members of a population.

Standard Error

The standard deviation or measure of variability or dispersion of a sampling distribution.

Statistical Inference

The mathematical theory and techniques for making conjectures about the unknown characteristics (parameter) of populations based on samples.

Stratified Sample

A probability sample in which elements sharing one or more characteristics are grouped, and elements are selected from each group in proportion to the group?s representation in the total population.

Stratum

A subgroup of a population that shares one or more characteristics.

Systematic Sample

A probability sample in which elements are selected from a list at predetermined intervals.

Weighting Factor

A mathematical factor used to make a disproportionate sample representative.

About this deck

Author: Anonymous

Textbook: Political Science Research Methods

Created: 2010-03-25

Updated: 2011-06-28

Size: 33 flashcards

Views: 20

Textbook: Political Science Research Methods

Created: 2010-03-25

Updated: 2011-06-28

Size: 33 flashcards

Views: 20

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