. Unfortunately, many adults encourage over eating, particularly if malnutrition was aproblem in their childhood culture, not realizing that too much fat, once protective, now leads to life threatening illness.
The brain continues to mature during early childhood, with myelination occurringin several crucial areas. One is the corpus callosum, which connects the left and right sides of the brain and therefore the right and left sides of the body. Increased myelination speeds up actions and
reactions. The prefrontal cortex enables a balance between action in order to begin another . As impulsiveness and perserveration decrease, children become better able to learn.
Several key areas of the brain - including the amygdala, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus- make up the limbic system, which matures from ages 2-6, aiding emotional expression and control. Children whose early experience was highly stressful and who lacked nurturing caregivers may have impiared limbic systems.
The cerebral cortex consists of :
Consists of the following:
Failure to meet a childs basic physical educational or emotional needs.
In fact the body mass index BMI is lower at age 5 than at any other age in the first five years. The center of gravity moves from the breast to the belly, enabling cartwheels, somersaults and many other motor skills.
At least 3 1/2 feet tall
weighs between 40-50 lbs
looks lean, not chubby
Has adult like body proportions( legs constitute about half the total weight.)
Sugar causes tooth degay .. the most common disease of young children in developed nations.
Unfortunately, the well intentioned practice of encouraging young children to eat can become destructive when food is abundant.
An epidemic of heart disease and diabetes is spreading worldwide as overfed children become overweight adults.
An article in Lancet, ( leading medical journal) predicted that by 2020, 228 million adults world wide will have diabetes( more in India than any other nation). as a result of unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood.
this article suggests that measures to reduce childhood overeating in the US have been inadequate and that US children could become the first generation in more than a century to have shorter life spans than their parents if current trends of excessive weight and obesity continue.
Apetite decreases between ages 2-6 because compared with infants, yound children need fewer calores per pound. This is especially true for the current generation, since children play outdoors less than their parents
They do not always obtain adequate iron, zinc, and calcium. Many cultures encourage children to eat sweets.. birthday cake, holiday candy and desserts.
Kids that eat healthy gain bone mass and not fat, according to a study that controlled for other facctors that might correlate with body fat such as gender..( girls have more) ethnicity ( some ethnic groups are genetically thinner) and income ( poor children have worse diets.
too much sugar and too little fiber cause tooth decay, the most common disease of young children in developed nations affecting more than one thired of all US children under age 6.
Sugary fruit drinks and soda are prime culprits; even diet soda contains acid that makes decay more likely.
Fortunately baby teeth are replace between 6-10
If carried over to adulthood can cause jaw malformation, chewing difficulties and speech problems.
The teeth are affected by diet and illness.
Many yound children are quite compulsive about daily routines. Thsi just right phrase peaks at age 3 when children:
Most if not all children exhibit these normal age-dependent obsessive compulsive behaviours which are usually gone by age 6
At the age of 5 , children show important gains as a result of growth in the corpus callosum, a band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This development of connectiveness gies them the ability to read.
By age 2 most neurons connect to other neurons and substantial pruning has occurred. the 2 year old's brain weighs 75% of what it will weigh in adulthood.
The most important parts, Those functions of the brain that make us most human are the ones that develop after infancy, enabling quicker, better coordinated and more reflective thought. Between the ages of 2-6 the brain grows from 75% to 90% of adjult weight, with increases particularly in the areas that allow advanced language
After infancy some brain growth is the result of proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons). However most incrased brain weight occurs because of myelination. Myelin is a fatty coating on the axons that speeds signals between neurons.
the effects of myelination are notable in early childhood partly because the areas of the brain that show greatest early myelination are the motor and sensory areas. Greater speed of though becomes pivotal when several thoughts must occur
At the age of 5 children show important gains as a result of growth in corpus Callosum, a band of nerve fivers connectin the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This development of connectiveness gives them the ability to read.
Growth of the Corpus Callosum makes communication between hemispheres more efficient, allowing children to coordinate the two sides of the brain or body. Failure of the corpus Callosum to develop results in serious disorders.
all affect which side does what. Lateralization advances with development of the corpus callosum.
Handedness is partly genetic but many cultures have tried to make everyone right handed. ... Forcing a left handed child to be right handed .. the result was a left handed who wrote right handed and the neurological success was incomplete. Their brains were only partly programmed. forcing a child to change interferes with their lateralization and causes conflict.
Generally the left half controls the right side of the body and contains areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language; the right half controls the left side of the body and contains areas dedicated to generalized emotional creative impulses, including appreciation of most music, art and poetry. Thus the left side notices details and the right side grasps the big picture.
The prefrontal cortex is the seat ofhigher -order cognition, including planning and complex forms of goal directed behavior. the executive othe brain. Benefits of maturation of this part of the brain. ( ages 2-6)
on or off
to activate or inhibit
both activation and inhhibition are necesary for thoughtful adults, who neither leap too quickly nore hestitate too long. A balanced brain is most effective throughout life.
Another function of the prefrontal cortex is to focus attention and thus curb impulsiveness. Impulsiveness and perseverance ( to stick to just one thought or action - the opposite of impulsiveness )are behaviors caused by immaturity of the prefrontal cortex. During preschool yars, brain maturation ( innate) & emotional regulation (learned) decrease both impulsiveness and perseverance.
As with all biological maturation, some of this is related to culture,,, hence the reason this chapter is c
As with all biological maturation, some of this is related to culture,,, hence the reason this chapter is called biosocial development and not simply physical development.
the limbic system is an area of the brain that is crucial in the expression and regulation of emotions. The three major parts of the limbic system are:
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex imporves impulse control while myelination of the corpus callosum & lateralization of the brain permits better coordination.
Gross Motor Skills: The abilities required in order to control the large muscles of the body for walking running sitting crawling and other activities.
Fine motor skills especially small movements of the hands and fingers are harder to master than gross motor skills. Pouring juice into a glass, cutting food with a knife and fork and achieving anything more artful than a scribble with a pencil all require a level of muscular control patience and judgement that are beyond most year olds.
An immature Corpus Callosum and prefrontal cortex maybe the reason why shoelaces get knotted , papers get ripped and zippers get stuck. Ma6 mth earlierforgi
Mastery of gross and fine motor skills is one result of extensive, active play for children.
Adults need to make sure children have asafe spaces, time and playmates; skills will follow. According to sociocultural theory, children learn best from peers who demonstrate whatever skills the child is ready to try from catching a ball to climbing a tree. Of course, the culture and locale influence which skills children display. some small children learn to sled; other learn to sail.
lead in the water and air, pesticides in the soil or clothing
Bisphenol A (BPA) in plastc, secondhand cigarette smoke,,,, have already proven harmful.
High exposures reduces intelligence and increases behavior problems in young children.
Over the past 20 years US Regulations have reduced the amount of lead in paint gasoline and manufacturing, and childrens bloodlead levels have dropped sharply in some states Eg. Colorado and Wyoming. The average is close to zero.
Encouraging gross motor skills requires
Nuturing the development of fine motor skills
by activities that youngsters enjoy, including crafts, puzzles, and playing with building blocks. Helping parents with every day domestic activities such as baking can be fun for the child in addition to developing fine motor skills. for example, stirring batter provides a good workout for the hand and muscles and cutting and spooning out cookie dough requires hand and eye coordination.
Because the development of fine motor skills plays a crucial role in school readiness and cognitive developm
A childs development in artistic expression varies greatly based on the child's experiences with art, music dance and theater.
All artistic expression blossom during early childhood. Psychologists have diverse opinions about whether drawings reveal anything about childrens emotions or needs.
Acidents are the major cause of childhood death.
Factors related to childhood injuries ( death)
The strongest risk factor of all is low SocioEconomic Status (SES)
Preventing Childhood injuries
childhood injuries can be reduced through?
How is Child Matreatment Defined by Law?
The Federal Child Abuse Prevention andTreatment Act ( CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A 5106g) as ameded provides the following definitions.
Child abuse and neglext is at minimum:
Includes such as actions as marked inattention to the childs needs for affectin; refusal of or failure to provide needed psychological care; spouse abuse in the childs presence and permission of drug or alcohol use by the child
The assessment of child neglect requires consideration of cultural values and standards of care as well as recognition that the filure to provide the necessities oflife may be related to poverty.
Although any of the forms of child maltreatment may be found separately, they often occur in combination. Emotional abuse is almost always present when other forms are identified.
2. Social isolation
Intergeneration transmssion of maltreatment is a fallacy!
70% of people that have been abused to not abuse.
is designed to stop maltreatment once it occurs, and to treat the victim and the family
which implies that harm can be minimized with appropriate controls.
Only half as many 1-5 year olds in the US were fatally injured in 2005 as in 1985 thanks to laws that govern poisons, fires and cars. But as more households in California, Florida, Texas and Arizona install swimming pools, drowning has become a leading cause of unitentional death for young children.