Chapter 8 Early Childhood Biosocial Development Ages 2-6
Psychology 2314 with Rwgates at Cisco College
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. Unfortunately, many adults encourage over eating, particularly if malnutrition was aproblem in their childhood culture, not realizing that too much fat, once protective, now leads to life threatening illness.
The brain continues to mature during early childhood, with myelination occurringin several crucial areas. One is the corpus callosum, which connects the left and right sides of the brain and therefore the right and left sides of the body. Increased myelination speeds up actions and
reactions. The prefrontal cortex enables a balance between action in order to begin another . As impulsiveness and perserveration decrease, children become better able to learn.
Several key areas of the brain - including the amygdala, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus- make up the limbic system, which matures from ages 2-6, aiding emotional expression and control. Children whose early experience was highly stressful and who lacked nurturing caregivers may have impiared limbic systems.
The cerebral cortex consists of :
- Prefrontal cortex Outer layers
- Auditory cortex ( on temporal lobe )
- Visual cortex ( on occipital lobe)
Consists of the following:
- Prefrontal Cortex ( outer layers ) Perfroms brain's executive functions plannning, selecting and coordinating thoughts.
- Auditory Cortex ( on temporal lobe ) Conscious processing of sounds
- Visual cortex (occipital lobe ) conscious processing of sights.
- Amygdala: Neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion.
- Hippocampus A structure in the limbic system linked to memory
- Hypothalamus: Controls maintenance functions such as eating helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward.
Failure to meet a childs basic physical educational or emotional needs.
- Genetic background
- Health care
In fact the body mass index BMI is lower at age 5 than at any other age in the first five years. The center of gravity moves from the breast to the belly, enabling cartwheels, somersaults and many other motor skills.
- 2-3 inches in height about 5 lbs in weight are added each year
- Child gradually becomes thinner
- Girls retain somewhat more body fat, boys are slightly more muscular
- Posture and balance inprove, resulting in gains in motor coordination
- By the end of the preschool years, children start to lose their primary teeth
- Physical growth is asynchronous process: different body systems have their won timed patters of maturation
- The brain continues to grow.. 2 yrold 70% to 90% by age 6
- Age 6 =46lbs
At least 3 1/2 feet tall
weighs between 40-50 lbs
looks lean, not chubby
Has adult like body proportions( legs constitute about half the total weight.)
Sugar causes tooth degay .. the most common disease of young children in developed nations.
Unfortunately, the well intentioned practice of encouraging young children to eat can become destructive when food is abundant.
An epidemic of heart disease and diabetes is spreading worldwide as overfed children become overweight adults.
An article in Lancet, ( leading medical journal) predicted that by 2020, 228 million adults world wide will have diabetes( more in India than any other nation). as a result of unhealthy eating habits acquired in childhood.
this article suggests that measures to reduce childhood overeating in the US have been inadequate and that US children could become the first generation in more than a century to have shorter life spans than their parents if current trends of excessive weight and obesity continue.
Apetite decreases between ages 2-6 because compared with infants, yound children need fewer calores per pound. This is especially true for the current generation, since children play outdoors less than their parents
They do not always obtain adequate iron, zinc, and calcium. Many cultures encourage children to eat sweets.. birthday cake, holiday candy and desserts.
Kids that eat healthy gain bone mass and not fat, according to a study that controlled for other facctors that might correlate with body fat such as gender..( girls have more) ethnicity ( some ethnic groups are genetically thinner) and income ( poor children have worse diets.
too much sugar and too little fiber cause tooth decay, the most common disease of young children in developed nations affecting more than one thired of all US children under age 6.
Sugary fruit drinks and soda are prime culprits; even diet soda contains acid that makes decay more likely.
Fortunately baby teeth are replace between 6-10
If carried over to adulthood can cause jaw malformation, chewing difficulties and speech problems.
The teeth are affected by diet and illness.
Many yound children are quite compulsive about daily routines. Thsi just right phrase peaks at age 3 when children:
- Have a strong preference to wear or not certain clothes
- Prefer to have things done in a particular order or in a certain way
- Prepare for bedtime by using a special activity, routine, or ritual
- Have stron preferences for special foods.
Most if not all children exhibit these normal age-dependent obsessive compulsive behaviours which are usually gone by age 6
- age two - 75%
- Age five - 90%
- Age seven - 100%
At the age of 5 , children show important gains as a result of growth in the corpus callosum, a band of nerve fibers connecting the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This development of connectiveness gies them the ability to read.
By age 2 most neurons connect to other neurons and substantial pruning has occurred. the 2 year old's brain weighs 75% of what it will weigh in adulthood.
The most important parts, Those functions of the brain that make us most human are the ones that develop after infancy, enabling quicker, better coordinated and more reflective thought. Between the ages of 2-6 the brain grows from 75% to 90% of adjult weight, with increases particularly in the areas that allow advanced language
After infancy some brain growth is the result of proliferation of the communication pathways (dendrites and axons). However most incrased brain weight occurs because of myelination. Myelin is a fatty coating on the axons that speeds signals between neurons.
the effects of myelination are notable in early childhood partly because the areas of the brain that show greatest early myelination are the motor and sensory areas. Greater speed of though becomes pivotal when several thoughts must occur
At the age of 5 children show important gains as a result of growth in corpus Callosum, a band of nerve fivers connectin the right and left hemispheres of the brain. This development of connectiveness gives them the ability to read.
Growth of the Corpus Callosum makes communication between hemispheres more efficient, allowing children to coordinate the two sides of the brain or body. Failure of the corpus Callosum to develop results in serious disorders.
all affect which side does what. Lateralization advances with development of the corpus callosum.
Handedness is partly genetic but many cultures have tried to make everyone right handed. ... Forcing a left handed child to be right handed .. the result was a left handed who wrote right handed and the neurological success was incomplete. Their brains were only partly programmed. forcing a child to change interferes with their lateralization and causes conflict.
Generally the left half controls the right side of the body and contains areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language; the right half controls the left side of the body and contains areas dedicated to generalized emotional creative impulses, including appreciation of most music, art and poetry. Thus the left side notices details and the right side grasps the big picture.
The prefrontal cortex is the seat ofhigher -order cognition, including planning and complex forms of goal directed behavior. the executive othe brain. Benefits of maturation of this part of the brain. ( ages 2-6)
- temper tantrum subside
- sleep becomes more regular
- uncontrollable laughter or tears become less common
- emotions become more nuanced and responsive to specific stimuli.
on or off
to activate or inhibit
both activation and inhhibition are necesary for thoughtful adults, who neither leap too quickly nore hestitate too long. A balanced brain is most effective throughout life.
Another function of the prefrontal cortex is to focus attention and thus curb impulsiveness. Impulsiveness and perseverance ( to stick to just one thought or action - the opposite of impulsiveness )are behaviors caused by immaturity of the prefrontal cortex. During preschool yars, brain maturation ( innate) & emotional regulation (learned) decrease both impulsiveness and perseverance.
As with all biological maturation, some of this is related to culture,,, hence the reason this chapter is c
As with all biological maturation, some of this is related to culture,,, hence the reason this chapter is called biosocial development and not simply physical development.
the limbic system is an area of the brain that is crucial in the expression and regulation of emotions. The three major parts of the limbic system are:
- Amygdala..... A tiny part of the brain that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety
- Hippocampus: Part of the brain that is a central processor of memory, especially the memory of locations.
- Hypothalamus: A brain area that responds to the amygdala and hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body.
Maturation of the prefrontal cortex imporves impulse control while myelination of the corpus callosum & lateralization of the brain permits better coordination.
Gross Motor Skills: The abilities required in order to control the large muscles of the body for walking running sitting crawling and other activities.
- Run for pleasure with out falling ( bumping into things)
- climb chairs, tables, beds out of cribs
- walk upstairs
- feed self with spoon
- draw lines and spirals
- Kick and throw ball
- jump with both feet off the floor
- peadal tricycle
- copy simple shapes ( eg circle triangle)
- walk down stairs
- climbl ladders
- Catch a ball ( not too small or thrown too fast)
- use scissors to cut
- hop on either foot
- feed slef with fork
- dress self ( no tiny buttons no ties)
- copy most letters
- pour juice without spilling
- brush teeth
- skip and gallop in rhythm
- clap bang and sing in rhythm
- copy difficult shapes and letters eg. diamond shape, letter S
- Climb trees, jump over things
- Use knife to cut
- Tie bow
- Throw ball
- Wash face, combe hair
- Draw and and paint with preferred hand
- write simple words
- scan a page of print moving the eyes systematically in the appropriate direction
- ride a bicycle
- do a cartwheel
- tie shoes
- catch a ball
Fine motor skills especially small movements of the hands and fingers are harder to master than gross motor skills. Pouring juice into a glass, cutting food with a knife and fork and achieving anything more artful than a scribble with a pencil all require a level of muscular control patience and judgement that are beyond most year olds.
An immature Corpus Callosum and prefrontal cortex maybe the reason why shoelaces get knotted , papers get ripped and zippers get stuck. Ma6 mth earlierforgi
Mastery of gross and fine motor skills is one result of extensive, active play for children.
Adults need to make sure children have asafe spaces, time and playmates; skills will follow. According to sociocultural theory, children learn best from peers who demonstrate whatever skills the child is ready to try from catching a ball to climbing a tree. Of course, the culture and locale influence which skills children display. some small children learn to sled; other learn to sail.
lead in the water and air, pesticides in the soil or clothing
Bisphenol A (BPA) in plastc, secondhand cigarette smoke,,,, have already proven harmful.
High exposures reduces intelligence and increases behavior problems in young children.
Over the past 20 years US Regulations have reduced the amount of lead in paint gasoline and manufacturing, and childrens bloodlead levels have dropped sharply in some states Eg. Colorado and Wyoming. The average is close to zero.
Encouraging gross motor skills requires
- a safe , open play space,
- peers to interact with and
- some adult supervision.
Nuturing the development of fine motor skills
by activities that youngsters enjoy, including crafts, puzzles, and playing with building blocks. Helping parents with every day domestic activities such as baking can be fun for the child in addition to developing fine motor skills. for example, stirring batter provides a good workout for the hand and muscles and cutting and spooning out cookie dough requires hand and eye coordination.
Because the development of fine motor skills plays a crucial role in school readiness and cognitive developm
A childs development in artistic expression varies greatly based on the child's experiences with art, music dance and theater.
All artistic expression blossom during early childhood. Psychologists have diverse opinions about whether drawings reveal anything about childrens emotions or needs.
Acidents are the major cause of childhood death.
Factors related to childhood injuries ( death)
- risk taking especially boys
- irritability, inattentiveness, a negative mood
- Poeverty and low parental education are strongly associated with injury deaths.
The strongest risk factor of all is low SocioEconomic Status (SES)
Preventing Childhood injuries
childhood injuries can be reduced through?
- improvement of the physical environment
- public education.
- Think prevention
- Think protection
- Analyze injuries
- Advocate safety
- In primary prevention the overall situation is structured to make injuries less likely
- Secondary prevention averts harm in high risk situations, such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian.
- Tertiary Prevention: begins after the injury , limiting the damage it causes.
How is Child Matreatment Defined by Law?
The Federal Child Abuse Prevention andTreatment Act ( CAPTA) (42 U.S.C.A 5106g) as ameded provides the following definitions.
- age of 18 or
- Except in cases of sexual abuse, the age specified by the child protection law of the State in which the child resides.
Child abuse and neglext is at minimum:
- Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation.
- An act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.
- Physical abuse
- sexual abuse
- and emotional abuse.
Includes such as actions as marked inattention to the childs needs for affectin; refusal of or failure to provide needed psychological care; spouse abuse in the childs presence and permission of drug or alcohol use by the child
The assessment of child neglect requires consideration of cultural values and standards of care as well as recognition that the filure to provide the necessities oflife may be related to poverty.
Although any of the forms of child maltreatment may be found separately, they often occur in combination. Emotional abuse is almost always present when other forms are identified.
2. Social isolation
- two or more siblings;
- an unemployed or absent father
- A mother who did not complete high school
- A home in a poor, high crime neighborhood.
- self esteem
- social relationships
- emotional control
Intergeneration transmssion of maltreatment is a fallacy!
70% of people that have been abused to not abuse.
- Primary Prevention
- Secondary Prevention
- Tertiary Prevention
- stable residents of a neighborhood
- Home ownership ( not renting )
- Support of local churches or community centers
- Two parent familes with children who were planned for and desired.
- Communities that cherish young people
- High income
- Includes sidewalks, speed bumps, pedestrian overpasses, streetlights and traffic circles.
- home visiting
- eduction for teen parents
- crisis hotlines
- respite care
- drop in child care
- eduction to help people recognize signs of maltreatment
- Reduces danger in high risk situations... Flashing lights on stopped school buses, school crossing guards, and fences to keep children from running into the streets. For teenagers this includes later ages for permits and or licenses. For everyone salt for icy roads, warning signs before blind curves.
- stigmatizing certain families as inadequate
- Undermining the family or cultural patterns
- Creating a sense of helplessnes
is designed to stop maltreatment once it occurs, and to treat the victim and the family
- Removal of the child from home and placement in alternative care
- Counselling for parents and child.
- Reduces damages after crashes such as laws against hit and runs, speedy ambulances, efficient emergency room procedures and effective rehabilitation.
which implies that harm can be minimized with appropriate controls.
Only half as many 1-5 year olds in the US were fatally injured in 2005 as in 1985 thanks to laws that govern poisons, fires and cars. But as more households in California, Florida, Texas and Arizona install swimming pools, drowning has become a leading cause of unitentional death for young children.
- Repeated injuries especially broken bones not properly tended
- fantasy playwith dominant thems of violence or sexual knowledge
- slow physical growth, especially with unusual appetite or lack of appetite
- Ongoing physical complaints suchas stomach aches headaches genital pain, sleeplessnes
- Reluctanct to talk to play or to move especially if development is slow
- No close freiendships; hostility toward others; bullying smaller children
- Hypervigilance, with quick, impulsive reactions, such as cringing, startling or hitting
- Frequent absences from school, changes of address, or new caregivers
- expresssions of fear rather than joy on seeing caregiver.
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