The continuum between normal and abnormal substance use; important to note social context.
Drugs can only simulate, either intensify or attenuate, naturally occurring processes in the body
Continued use despite negative consequences
Compulsive use (beyond control)
loss of Control over use (gotta have more and more)
negative consequences; deviation from social or medical patterns
physically hazardous situations, low judgement, substance related legal problems (driving, stealing)
The coexistence of a substance use diagnosis and other Axis I or II diagnosis for a client
-anti-social PD; Depression
Slow CNS functions:
Most commonly abused in US; Agonist; decreased activity of neurological systems responsible for emotional and self-control (social functioning, planning)
Potent Teratogen-> fetal alcohol syndrome
sedatives-substances used to promote relaxation
hypnotics-substances used to promote sleep
Highly addictive;produce tolerance and withdrawal.
natural: opium> morphine and codeine
semi-synthetic: heroin, painkillers (oxycodone)
synthetic: methadone, suboxone
eliminate pain, depression, sadness, etc. highly addictive, withdrawal is extremely uncomfortable.
Increase CNS functions:
enhance arousal, alertness, and energy
blocks ruptake of DA, NE, Serotonin
high danger of overdose, treatment is difficult and relapses are usual
increase availability of NE, DA, Serotonin
potent high, unpleasant withdrawl
ADHD medication, weight loss, treatment of narcolepsy
inhale, chew, transermal, highly addictive
smoking=world's deadliest drug
enhances vigilance and arousal, mood, relaxes muscles at high dose, reduces hunger.
oral, rapid distribution peak blood levels 1 hr
half-life 3-5 hours
increases BP, respiration, headache relief, diuretic
-Caffeinism: involves irritability, insomnia, nervousness, twitching, heart arrhythmaias/palpitations, GI disturbances
produce hallucinations and delusions
Most widely used illegal drug in the world; THC- most psychoactive ingredient
rapidly absorbed but metabolizes slowly
effects: depressand, hallucinogenic, and stimulant properties
tolerance, withdrawl, and physicla/psychological dependence can occur
MDMA- chemical compound
effects: increased empathy, closeness, and connection with others, tolerance can occur.
Individuals are viewed:
completely responsible for their addiciton; hedonistically motivated- no regard for others; failing willpower.
Individuals not responsible for illnes; NO pschological factors involved; eases shame and stigma, people are more willing to seek help