Common Gateway Interface is a specification for processing data on a Web server.
MySQL is a:
popular open-source DBMS.
The type of logical database model that treats data as if they were stored in two dimensional tables is the:
A physical view shows data as it is organized on the storage media.
IT infrastructure technology is the set of physical devices required to operate the entire enterprise.
In client/server computing, the client is:
the computer that acts as the user point of entry.
Access is a:
DBMS for desktop systems.
The select operation:
creates a subset consisting of all records in the file that meets stated criteria.
In linking databases to the Web, the role of the application server is to host the DBMS.
You are working in the IT department of a small paper supply company and planning a new database that monitors employee benefits and productivity. What would be the relationship you need to establish between Employee_ID in the Employee table and Parking_spot_number in the Perks table?
Employee attitudes about their jobs, employers, or technology can have a powerful effect on their abilities to use information systems productively.
One of the most frequent errors in problem solving is:
Verizon's implementation of a Web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with real-time information, such as customer complaints, is an example of:
The join operation:
combines relational tables to provide the user with more information than is otherwise available.
The idea driving synergies is that when the output of some units can be used as inputs to other units, the relationship can lower cost and generate profits.
A value web is a collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to collectively produce a product or service for a market.
An industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, optimize, tune, and heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction is called:
Linux plays a major role in supporting business information systems, and has garnered about ________ of the U.S. server market.
A firm can be said to have competitive advantage when it has higher stock market valuations than its competitors.
All of the following are ways to improve quality except:
implementing a new information system.
A report generator is a type of:
In terms of the data relationships found by data mining, sequences refers to:
events linked over time.
All of the following place strain on system capacity, except for:
minimized response time for transaction processing.
The tool that enables users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions is:
The ________ strategy is characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the home country of origin.
To analyze the direct and indirect costs and determine the actual cost of specific technology implementations, you would use a:
In the strategy of product differentiation, information systems are used to enable new products and services.
Businesses use ________ tools to search and analyze unstructured data sets, such as e-mails and memos.
Total cost of ownership components include costs for downtime, training, and support.
________ is an approach to data management that stores both data and procedures acting on the data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared.
A field identified in a table as holding the unique identifier of the table's records is called the:
Legacy systems are still in use today because:
they are too expensive to redesign.
Inadequate database capacity is an example of the ________ dimension of business problems.
Application server software is responsible for locating and managing stored Web pages.
What is the first step you should take in managing data for a firm?
The contracting of custom software development to outside firms is commonly referred to as:
All of the following have been disruptive technologies except:
The first step in the four-step model of business problem solving is:
The greatest impact the Internet has had on globalization is in lowering the costs of:
The logical view of a database:
presents data as they would be perceived by end users.
A foreign key is a field that links to a separate table.
The six important business objectives of information technology are: new products, services, and business models; customer and supplier intimacy; improved decision making; competitive advantage; operational excellence, and:
All of the following are elements of critical thinking except:
Connecting geographically remote computers in a single network to create a "virtual supercomputer" is called:
The competitive forces model was created for today's digital firm.
Tools for consolidating, analyzing, and providing access to vast amounts of data to help users make better business decisions are known as:
The iPad can be seen as a disruptive technology for the ________ industry.
is a pyramid structure of rising authority and responsibility.
The greatest barrier to changing business processes is ironically, management itself.
A(n) ________ is a dedicated computer in a client/server environment that hosts a DBMS.
ChicagoCrime.org, which combines Google Maps with crime data for the city of Chicago, is an example of:
The value chain model classifies all company activities as either primary or support.
Whereas marketing and financial careers have been transformed by the growth in information systems, management has-so far-remained relatively unaffected.
Web services can exchange information between two different systems regardless of the operating system or programming languages on which the systems are based.
Which of the following would you use to find patterns in user interaction data recorded by Web servers?
BPM is considered concluded when the new processes are both implemented and accepted.
Journalist Thomas Friedman's description of the world as "flat" referred to:
the flattening of economic and cultural advantages of developed countries.
An information skill important for an accounting major would be:
an understanding of online transaction and reporting systems.
The ________ model highlights the primary or support activities that add a margin of value to a firm's products or services where information systems can best be applied to achieve a competitive advantage.
In clustering, a data mining tool will:
Data cleansing is the same process as data scrubbing.
When the output of some units can be used as inputs to other units, or if two organizations pool markets and expertise that result in lower costs and generate profits, it is often referred to as creating:
What type of device gathers data and converts them into electronic form for use by the computer?
Which of the following can force a business and its competitors to compete on price alone?
There are two types of outsourcing: offshore outsourcing and foreign outsourcing.
The three activities in an information system that produce the information organizations use to control operations are:
Electronic computers and related software programs are the technical foundation, the tools and materials, of:
Data is information that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful to human beings.
In a multitiered network:
the work of the entire network is balanced over several levels of servers.
Which of the following types of computer would you use to support a computer network?
Developing a new product, fulfilling an order, or hiring a new employee are all examples of business processes.
use Internet technology for a private company network.
The project operation:
creates a subset consisting of columns in a table.
Which of the following statements is not true about cloud computing?
It removes the concern about data and systems security for businesses.
Which of the following does not describe a difference between the way customers and producers see quality?
For a consumer, quality means uniformity of the product.
A data ________ stores current and historical data of potential interest to decision makers throughout the company.
The dimensions of information systems are people, organizations, and information technology.
Detailed, preprogrammed instructions that control and coordinate the computer hardware components in an information system describes:
DBMS simplify how end users work with databases by separating the logical and physical views of the data.
A micromultinational is a small firm operating on a global scale.
A transparent marketplace means that there is high product differentiation.
The most successful solutions or methods for achieving a business objective are called:
sees the cost of adding new members as inconsequential.
The owners of Speed-EZ, a new bike messenger service, are concerned about how they will manage their messengers once they have left the office. This is a business problem that falls into the:
An IT infrastructure provides the platform on which the firm can build its information systems.
Which of the following statements about data warehouses is not true?
A grouping of characters into a word, a group of words, or a complete number is called a record.
OLAP is a key tool of BI.
Client/server computing is the most widely used form of centralized processing.
The emergence of the World Wide Web acted as a disruptive technology for:
A firm can exercise greater control over its suppliers by having:
Which of the following illustrates the use of information systems to strengthen customer and supplier intimacy?
A PC manufacturer's use of information systems to facilitate direct access from suppliers to production schedules.
Internet advertising is growing at a rate of more than 30 percent a year.
As described in the opening case of the chapter, Disney is implementing new information systems in order to create new products, games, and rides.
HTML5 is the latest evolution of HTML, and is designed to make it much easier to embed third-party add-ons, such as Flash animations and streaming video, in web pages.
Poor business processes is an example of the ________ dimension of business problems.
Which of the following is not a typical feature of DBMS?
As per your reading of the chapter opening case, which of the following best describes the challenges faced by Banco de Crédito del Perú (BCP)?
BCP had multiple, redundant, and error-prone sources of data.
In a table for customers, the information about a single customer would reside in a single:
A one-to-many relationship between two entities is symbolized in a diagram by a line that ends:
with a crow's foot preceded by a short mark.
As discussed in the chapter opening case, Disney's implementation of new information systems in their amusement parks can be seen as an effort to achieve which of the primary business objectives?
Which type of software provides more control over text and graphic placement in the layout of a page than word processing software?
compares the efficiency and effectiveness of your business processes against strict standards.
The confusion created by ________ makes it difficult for companies to create customer relationship management, supply chain management, or enterprise systems that integrate data from different sources.
The most prominent data manipulation language today is:
A data mart usually can be constructed more rapidly and at lower cost than a data warehouse because:
it typically focuses on a single subject area or line of business.
Legal and regulatory compliance is an example of the ________ dimension of business problems.
can boost server utilization rates to 70% or higher.
In cloud computing, rapid elasticity refers to the ability of computing resources to be quickly altered to meet demand.
Which of the following best illustrates the relationship between entities and attributes?
The entity CUSTOMER with the attribute ADDRESS
Which of the following is an example of a business using information systems to create new products and services?
The final step in the four-step model of business problem solving is:
Which of the following types of computer is used for weather forecasting?
The interactive, multiuser operating system developed by Bell Laboratories in 1969 to be highly supportive of communications and networking is:
An information skill important for a marketing major would be:
an understanding of product management enterprise systems.
All of the following can be considered managerial responsibilities except:
designing new information systems.
________ is an operating system-independent, processor-independent, object-oriented programming language that has become a leading interactive programming environment for the Web.
A database that receives employee manual input of customer names and addresses is riddled with errors and you have been charged with rectifying the situation. In taking an organizational perspective of this problem, you would be considering:
Information technology (IT) consists of all the hardware that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives, whereas information systems consist of all the hardware and software needed.
A data warehouse may include information from legacy systems.
A(n) ________ uses networks to link people, assets, and ideas, enabling it to work with other companies to create products and services without being limited by traditional organizational boundaries or physical locations.
An example of raw data from a national chain of automobile stores would be:
1 Toyota RAV4 sold January 7, 2008 in Louisville, Kentucky - $28000.
Political conflict is an example of the people dimension of business problems.
Which of the following statements is not true?
The impact of domestic IT outsourcing has been very disruptive to some regional areas of the U.S.
An example of a business using information systems for customer and supplier intimacy is:
JC Penney's information system that allows its contract manufacturers to see what garments have been sold and need to be replaced.
The use of different terms for identifying data in a firm's various information systems is an example of redundant data.
Which of the following is a device used to collect data directly from the environment for input into a computer system?
An information policy specifies the procedures and rules for defining the structure and content of corporate databases.
Hypertext markup language specifies how text, graphics, video, and sound are placed on a document.
In the value chain model, primary activities are most directly related to the production and distribution of the firm's products and services that create value for the customer.
A firm's information policy lays out who is responsible for updating and maintaining the information in a database system.
As per your reading of the chapter case, which of the four generic business strategies was Starbucks following in implementing its Starbucks Digital Network?
Customer and supplier intimacy
A schematic of the entire database that describes the relationships in a database is called a(n):
The fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of a company's members is called its:
Based on your reading of the case discussing mobile handhelds, TCHO Chocolate's use of an iPhone app that connects to chocolate-making machines is an example of using information systems to enhance which of the following generic business objectives?
New products, services, and business models
An automated or manual file that stores information about data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization, and security is the:
SaaS providers deliver and provide Web-based, remote access to storage.
You use ________ to predict when a computer hardware system becomes saturated.
A high-speed network dedicated to storage that connects different kinds of storage devices, such as tape libraries and disk arrays so they can be shared by multiple servers, best describes:
The main challenge coming to Microsoft's Office software suite will be:
Web-based productivity software such as Google Apps.
What are the relationships that the relational database is named for?
A firm's value chain is linked to the:
value chains of its suppliers, distributors, and customers.
Purchasing computing power from a central computing service and paying only for the amount of computing power used is commonly referred to as:
A DBMS makes the:
physical database available for different logical views.
All of the following describe the effects of globalization, except:
increases in transaction costs.
Which of the following illustrates the use of information systems to achieve product differentiation?
A shoe manufacturer's use of information systems in selling custom, made-to-order shoes directly to customers.
Detecting and correcting data in a database or file that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant is called:
Many applications today require databases that can store and retrieve multimedia.
XML is limited to describing how data should be presented in the form of Web pages; HTML can perform presentation, communication, and storage of data.
You are a new manager at a plumbing supply manufacturer where there is an unusually high number of returns for a new aerator for a high-end faucet in production. In viewing the problem you determine that the primary cause is the improperly designed die cast for the aerator. Which dimension of a business problem does this reflect?
________ is a service provided by the Internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format.
An information system can enhance core competencies by:
encouraging the sharing of knowledge across business units.
Data management technology consists of:
the software governing the organization of data on physical storage media.
A network requires at least three computers and a shared resource.
Which of the following would you use to find out which Web sites with content related to database design were the most often linked to by other Web sites?
Allowing departments to make their own software and hardware purchases increases efficiency and minimizes the need for centralized support.
Intranets are private corporate networks extended to authorized users outside the organization.
Which of the following is not one of the most important four programming languages for business?
Software applications that combine different online software applications are referred to as:
Web browsers are the primary interface for accessing the Internet.
In network economics, the value of a commercial software vendor's software products:
An example of autonomic computing is:
virus protection software that runs and updates itself automatically.
OLAP is used to find hidden patterns and relationships in large databases, and infer rules from these to infer future behavior.
The most basic business database is comprised of:
five tables: for customers, employees, suppliers, products, and sales.
Large corporations have been slow to adopt mobile computing as a platform.
All of the following industries have been severely disrupted by the Internet except:
Which of the following database types is useful for storing Java applets as well as handling large numbers of transactions?
A characteristic or quality describing an entity is called a(n):
Both Oracle and Microsoft Access use SQL to retrieve information from the database.
In a hierarchical organization, the upper levels consist of:
managerial, professional, and technical workers.
The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the information system business objective of:
________ systems are those in which development occurs at the home base but operations are handed over to autonomous units in foreign locations.
Data administration is a special organizational function that manages the policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organizational resource.
Converting raw data into a more meaningful form is called:
Data mining is a tool for allowing users to:
Which of the following best describes business globalization?
Businesses selling their products worldwide
The use of information systems because of necessity describes the business objective of:
According to your reading of the chapter opening case, which new hardware technology did BART utilize to more closely match its computing power and storage capacities to its real needs?
Today, most system and application software is custom built by in-house programmers.
Using an online storage service such as DropBox is a type of virtualization.
Software used to apply the computer to a specific task for an end user is called:
Software localization refers to the entire process of converting software to operate in a second language.
A manufacturer of deep-sea oil rigs may be least concerned about which of these marketplace forces?
Which of the following industries has the lowest barrier to entry?
A mainframe is a type of legacy workstation.
Business process reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes.
A major criterion in deciding the most important perspectives of a business problem is:
Running a Java program on a computer requires:
a Java virtual machine to be installed on the computer.
A substitute product of most concern for a cable TV distributor is:
Which of the following is not one of the competitive forces of Porter's model?
A ________ is an activity at which a firm excels as a world-class leader.
________ is the ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as bulk production.
Which of the following storage technology stores data sequentially?
An SaaS provider maintains a large Web server, or series of servers, and provides fee-paying subscribers with space to maintain their Web sites.
Implementing a Web interface for a database requires changes to the database itself.
Probably the best single way to reduce quality problems is to reduce cycle time.
OODBMS are slower than relational DBMS.
A DBMS is special software for creating, storing, organizing, and accessing data from a database.
A DBMS is special software for creating, storing, organizing, and accessing data from a database.
The law of diminishing returns always applies to digital, as well as traditional products.
makes it easy for rivals to compete on price alone.
What would be a reason for using a workstation rather than a personal computer?
When you need more powerful computational abilities
The culture of UPS places service to the customer among the company's highest business objectives, which is reflected in their use of information systems to enable customer tracking of their packages. Based on your reading of Chapter 1, why is "culture" an important factor to consider when building information system solutions to business problems?
The use of multiple computers linked by a communications network for processing is called:
As per your reading of the chapter opening case, which competitive force does Skype represent to AT&T?
All of the following choices describe ways for a company to achieve a competitive advantage, except:
To what competitive force did the printed encyclopedia industry succumb?
Flapjack Flats, a new pancake chain, is having difficulty finding pancake chefs. This is a business problem that falls into the:
The primary activities of a firm include:
inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and service.
An example of a pre-digital database is a:
One of the drawbacks to OODBMS is that they cannot work with applets.
The process of streamlining data to minimize redundancy and awkward many-to-many relationships is called:
Operations management, as a discipline, is directly relevant to three occupational categories:
Systems integration means ensuring the legacy systems work with new elements of the infrastructure.
The primary storage technologies are:
storage networks, magnetic tape, magnetic disk, and optical disk.
Which of the following would not be considered part of the implementation phase of problem solving?
Evaluating a selection of software packages for implementing a new business process
The ________ strategy concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries.
Every record in a file should contain at least one key field.
A private cloud is operated by a single organization but may be managed by a third party and be located off premises.
The reduction of errors to 3.4 defects per million opportunities is central to the concept of:
XML provides a standard format for data exchange, enabling Web services to pass data from one process to another.
Within a corporate information services department, the task of creating the physical database and its logical relations are responsibilities of the ________ function.
What is the foundation technology for Web services?
The first movers of a disruptive technology typically benefit the most from the technology; and it is rare that fast followers catch up quickly.
In terms of the data relationships found by data mining, associations refers to:
occurrences linked to a single event.
A table that links two tables that have a many-to-many relationship is often called a(n):
A client computer networked to a server computer, with processing split between the two types of machines, is called a(n) ________ architecture.
A one-to-one relationship between two entities is symbolized in a diagram by a line that ends:
How are information systems used at the industry level to achieve strategic advantage?
By building industry-wide, IT-supported consortia and symposia
The average number of tickets sold daily online is an example of:
________ is free software created and updated by a worldwide community of programmers.
Studies show that about half of a business firm's profits can be explained by alignment of IT with business.
A firm that locates all systems development and operations at its headquarters is using a ________ system configuration.
Customers are one of the competitive forces that affect an organization's ability to compete.
DBMS typically include report-generating tools in order to:
display data in an easier-to-read format.
An example of a business using information systems to attain competitive advantage is:
In a ________ system configuration, separate information systems are designed and managed by each foreign unit.
The activities that measure the performance of your business processes against strict standards are called best practices.
________ typically develop a single information system, usually at the home base, and then replicate it around the world.
Software that organizes, manages, and processes business data, such as data concerned with inventory, customers, and vendors, is called:
data management software.
A ________ is a collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to produce a product or service for a market collectively.
A field identified in a record as holding the unique identifier for that record is called the:
The more people that use Microsoft Office software and related products, the lower its value.
The four basic strategies a company can employ to deal with competitive forces are:
(1) strengthen customer and supplier intimacy, (2) focus on market niche, (3) product differentiation, and (4) low-cost leadership.
Quality control is seen as an end in itself in Six Sigma.
Hilton Hotels' use of customer information software to identify the most profitable customers to direct services to is an example of using information systems to:
focus on market niche.
Feedback is output returned to appropriate members of the organization to help them evaluate or correct the input stage.
To make sure they stock clothes that their customers will purchase, a department store implements a new application that analyzes spending levels at their stores and cross references this data to popular clothing styles. This is an example of using information systems to support a business strategy of:
customer and supplier intimacy.
A business model describes how a company produces, delivers, and sells a product or service to create wealth.
Relational database systems use ________ to ensure that relationships between coupled tables remain consistent.
referential integrity rules
In co-location, a firm:
purchases and owns their Web server but locates the server in the physical facility of a hosting service.
Microsoft Excel is an example of:
Languages that enable a user to make requests using conversational commands resembling human speech are called:
In some instances, BPM will lead to a paradigm shift that transforms the nature of the business itself.
In a relational database, the three basic operations used to develop useful sets of data are:
select, project, and join.
A data warehouse is typically comprised of several smaller data marts.
The more any given resource is applied to production, the lower the marginal gain in output, until a point is reached where the additional inputs produce no additional output is referred to as:
The business case for using grid computing involves all of the following except:
What is the purpose of a DBMS's data definition function?
Predictive analysis is a technique of data mining.
The Internet raises the bargaining power of customers by:
making information available to everyone.
One of the main benefits of moving to mobile business computing platforms is the dramatically lower costs of hardware.
Financial managers work directly with ________ to ensure investments in information systems help achieve corporate goals.
The collection of Web services that are used to build a firm's software systems constitutes what is known as a service-oriented architecture.
In a relational database, a record is also called a(n):
OLAP is a tool for enabling:
users to obtain online answers to ad hoc questions in a rapid amount of time.
As per your reading of the chapter case, what primary benefit of using data mining technology is driving more accurate and precise marketing by large companies such as Forbes and Eastman Kodak?
A more realistic understanding of their customers
A software package for a mainframe usually requires a programmer to install it.
The support activities of a firm include:
Which of the following is not one of the three major categories of business problem solving?
________ describes the efforts of companies to reduce the power and cooling costs of maintaining their technology assets.
In choosing the best solution for a business problem, one of the most important considerations is:
existing resources and skills.
A(n) ________ is a structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system.
Mass customization allows a company to offer individually-tailored products using the same production resources as mass production.
Identifying a problem includes agreeing that a problem exists.
Assume you work for a package delivery service in a major metropolitan area and that the business has been losing customers for several years. You have been asked to find a solution to this problem, perhaps one which uses modern information technologies. What is the correct way to proceed?
Identify the problem, design alternative solutions, choose the best solution, and then implement the solution.
The floppy disk used by earlier generation PCs for portable storage has now been largely replaced by:
Information systems literacy describes the behavioral approach to information systems, while computer literacy describes the technical approach.
In order to understand how a specific business firm uses information systems, you need to know something about the history and culture of the company.
A software suite:
includes full-featured versions of application software bundled as a unit.
UPS's use of Web-based tools that allow customers to embed UPS functions, such as tracking and cost calculations, into their own Web sites was an information systems solution used to achieve customer intimacy.
The world's largest and most widely used network is:
Microsoft Word is an example of:
Encouraging employees to adapt to new business processes is an important factor in change management.
End users use a data manipulation language to manipulate data in the database.
Which of the following is not a type of output device?
Consider an information system in a moving company that analyzes travel patterns and decides which routes are the most efficient for every van. The need for employees to follow procedures to update this system with arrival and departure times would be considered a(n) ________ element of the system.
In order to manage their relationship with an outsourcer or technology service provider, firms need a contract that includes a(n):
Software that manages the resources of the computer is called:
A virtual company:
uses the capabilities of other companies without being physically tied to those companies.
Which of the following refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down?
A(n) ________ allows users to interact with a computer by using several fingers to perform gestures without using a mouse or keyboard.
An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support:
decision making and control in an organization.
As a result of new public laws, accountants are beginning to perform more technical duties, such as auditing systems and networks.
An information system can enable a company to focus on a market niche through:
intensive customer data analysis.
Computers are only part of an information system.
Franchisers are firms that have their product created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country but rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources.
Web mining is the discovery of useful patterns on the Web.
Walmart's continuous replenishment system allows it to:
provide an efficient customer response system.
In the age of the Internet, Porter's traditional competitive forces model is still at work, but competitive rivalry has become much more intense.
The effect of the Internet has been to raise bargaining power over suppliers.
Seeing quality as the responsibility of all people and functions in an organization is central to the concept of:
Two categories of fourth-generation languages are:
graphics language and application software package.
When a firm provides a specialized product or service for a narrow target market better than competitors, they are using a ________ strategy.
The value chain model:
helps a firm identify points at which information technology can most effectively enhance its competitive position.
Which of the following is a type of optical disk storage?
Which of the following illustrates the use of information systems to focus on market niche?
A hot tub dealer's use of information systems to determine which models and options its customers are most likely to buy.
An understanding of enterprise-wide systems for customer relationship management is one of the skills relevant to careers in marketing.
Nanotechnology uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit.
Data mining is more ________ than OLAP.
Which of the following best describes the importance of creating an accurate data model for your business's database?
Critical, as without one, your data may be inaccurate, incomplete, or difficult to retrieve.
transfers processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.
The failure of NASA's initial solution to preventing the space shuttle shedding foam illustrates:
the continuous nature of problem solving.
The field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm is called:
management information systems.
Strong linkages to customers and suppliers increase switching costs.
What is the estimated growth rate for information systems managers jobs through 2018?
A set of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software application is called:
Business processes are those logically related tasks for accomplishing tasks that have been formally encoded by an organization.
Benchmarks are specific standards for business processes set by industry leaders.