type of leaf with no leaf gap
the production of two different spores of different sizes and sex
a) increases potential for outcrossing
b)specialization of function permits an increase in efficiency
why is heterospory selectively advantaged?
1) vessel elements in wood
2) double fertilization (but 2nd feritilzation in gnetophytes does not produce endosperm)
3) flower-like structures
what are the 3 main similarities between gnetophytes and angiosperms?
when a microsporocyte undergoes meiosis in an angiosperm, what does it yield?
what is the main function of the endosperm?
transfer of pollen to a different plant
which pollinator has no sense of smell?
why do ants transport seeds?
CO2 returns to the atmosphere through what 3 processes?
what do the Vostok Ice Core and Mauna Loa Curve measure?
Pearl Millet, Cocurbita Pepo
name an example of a species that is victim domestication syndrome
What was the underlying cause of the southern corn blight epidemic of 1970?
what is believed to be the progenitor of maize?
milkweeds and monarchs, wild parsnip and parsnip webworms
air roots that grow out of the mud to provide adequate gas exchange
what are pneumataphores?
how is nitrogen fixed from the atmosphere?
the soil that is directly associated with the roots of the plants