Which of the following Is NOT true of the Impact of culture?
In dealing with unfamiliar markets, frames of reference are unimportant In evaluating the potential of a market
-The reaction to much of the environment's (cultural) impact on the marketer's activities is automatic
-Judgments are derived from experiences that is the result of acculturation in the home country
-An establishment frame of reference is an important factor in determining a marketer's reaction to situations--social and even nonsocial
-As a result of acculturation, we react in a manner acceptable to our society without consciously thinking about It
when should: marketers must be aware of the frames of reference they are using in making their decisions or evaluating the potential of a market
Your _____ can prevent you from being aware that there are cultural differences or from recognizing the importance of those differences.
Which of the following organizations has a better chance of accelerating their internationalization process?
James Bright's company seeks markets all over the world and attempts to sell products that are a result of planned production for markets in various countries. Which of the following stages BEST characterizes the stage of international marketing involvement for Mr. Bright's company?
Which of the following is true of the first two stages of international marketing involvement—no direct foreign marketing and infrequent foreign marketing?
Which of the following is the top political issue concerning foreign businesses?
Stability of prevailing government policies
The five main causes of instability in international markets include trade disputes and all of the following EXCEPT:
(1) some forms of government seem to be inherently unstable,
(2) changes in political parties during elections can have major effects on trade conditions, (3) nationalism,
(4) animosity targeted toward specific countries, and
(5) trade disputes themselves.
All of the following are instances of how nationalism can be manifested EXCEPT:
-call to buy our country's products
-restrictions on import
- restrictive tariffs
-focus on national security
a call to "buy our country's products only" (e.g., "Buy American"), restrictions on imports, restrictive tariffs, and other barriers to trade.
With respect to political risk that can be faced by a company seeking to invest abroad, which of the following presents the most severe political risk?
When a government seizes an investment of a foreign investor but some reimbursement for the assets is made, the government is following a process called:
All of the following are considered to be economic risks that can be faced by international companies EXCEPT:
price controls, and
All of the following strategies can be effective in forestalling or minimizing the effect of a total takeover of a multinational corporation's holdings by a foreign government EXCEPT:
expanding the investment base,
political bargaining, and
While expanding the investment base of a company, which of the following can be used as a powerful ally in dealing with threats of government takeovers or harassment?
Because of political changes in the late twentieth century, which of the following countries has had to build from scratch an entire commercial legal system?
The World Court can adjudicate disputes between which of the following?
Which of the following is NOT one of the traditional remedies by American companies to protect intellectual property?
Threats to withdraw products from country
(1) prevention, that is, engage local representation and diligently register IP with the appropriate agencies;
(2) pursue negotiation and alternative dispute resolution;
(3) complain to the Chinese authorities; and
(4) complain to the U.S. government and World Trade Organization (WTO).
All of the following would be considered to be reasons for adopting an attitude of protectionism with respect to world trade EXCEPT:
protection of an infant industry
protection of a home market
the need to keep money at home
to encourage capital accumulation
The United States and other countries require some products (automobiles in particular) to contain a percentage of "local content" to gain admission to their markets. This is an example of the usage of _____ to restrict trade.
_____are sometimes used in an unduly stringent or discriminating way to restrict trade.
Which of the following is NOT true of the GATT?
Member nations seek to resolve their trade disputes unilaterally.
the following are true of the GATT:
The GATT panels are only advisory and have no enforcement powers.
It created an agency to serve as watchdog over world trade.
One of the basic elements of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is that:
trade shall be conducted on a nondiscriminatory basis.
(1) trade shall be conducted on a nondiscriminatory basis;
(2) protection shall be afforded domestic industries through customs tariffs, not through such commercial measures as import quotas; and
(3) consultation shall be the primary method used to solve global trade problems.
_____ and the World Bank Group are two global institutions created to assist nations in becoming and remaining economically viable.
The International Monetary Fund
The five institutions of the World Bank Group perform all the following services EXCEPT:
providing investors with investment guarantees against "commercial risk".
-lending money to the governments of developing countries to finance development projects in education, health, and infrastructure.
-providing assistance to governments for developmental projects to the poorest developing countries.
-helping strengthen the private sector in developing countries with long-term loans, equity investments, and other financial assistance.
-providing facilities for the conciliation and arbitration of disputes between governments and foreign investors.
such as expropriation and war, to create an environment in developing countries that will attract foreign investment.
The complaints against the WTO, IMF, and others include all of the following EXCEPT:
worker exploitation and domestic job losses,
higher oil prices, and
diminished sovereignty of nations.
T/F The Individualism/Collective Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one's self-interest.
A traditional definition of _____ centers around the notion that it is the sum of the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned, shared by a group of people, and transmitted from generation to generation.
the values, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and thought processes that are learned and shared by a group of people, then transmitted from generation to generation.
The most useful information on how cultural values influence various types of business and market behavior comes from work done by:
he found that the cultures of the nations studied differed along four primary dimensions.
The _____ Index refers to the preference for behavior that promotes one's self-interest.
Which of the following countries scores highest on the Individualism/Collectivism Index meaning that this country values and rewards individual initiative more than the others cited?
The Uncertainty Avoidance Index measure the tolerance of _____ and _____ among members of a society.
Which of the following cultures are associated with low level of anxiety and stress, a tolerance of deviance, and dissent, and a willingness to take risks?
Cultures scoring low in uncertainty avoidance
Which of the following terms pertains to societies in which people from birth onward are integrated into strong, cohesive groups, which throughout people's lifetimes continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty?
Which of the following indexes have proven to be the most useful dimension in understanding cultural values?
Power Distance Index
Based on the Individualism/Collectivism Index, in which of the following countries will the "virtual social" activity of sitting alone at one's computer be most acceptable?
never make an issue of a gift presentation--publicly or privately;
gifts should be presented privately, with the exception of collective ceremonial gifts at banquets or after speeches.
Marketing strategy is judged culturally in terms of ____.
acceptance, resistance, or rejection
acceptance, resistance, or rejection. How marketing efforts interact with a culture determines the degree of success or failure.
that is, deliberately set out to change those aspects of the culture offering resistance to predetermined marketing goals.
The Westernized diet has caused many Japanese to become overweight. This is an example of ____.
_____ are the business customs and expectations that must be met and conformed to or avoided if relationships are to be successful.
With respect to business customs, customs to which adaptation is helpful, but not necessary are called:
customs to which adaptation is helpful but not necessary; and exclusives, customs in which an outsider must not participate.
of behavior or to customs that cultural aliens may wish to conform to or participate in but that are not required. In other words, following the custom in question is not particularly important but is permissible.
There are many different views regarding the most important ideas on which normative U.S. cultural concepts are based. All of the following are generally accepted as acceptable ideas with this respect EXCEPT:
the collective good outweighs the individual gain.
1) "Master of destiny" viewpoint,
2) Independent enterprise as the instrument of social action,
3) Personnel selection and reward based on merit,
4) Decisions based on objective analysis
, 5) Wide sharing in decision making,
6) Never-ending quest for improvement, and
7) Competition producing efficiency.
Which of the following would be the best description of the "master of destiny" philosophy that is fundamental to U.S. management thought?
According to the text, which of the following is the most fundamental notion in Western management?
Competition is crucial for efficiency
competition is crucial for efficiency, improvement, and regeneration.
In _____ countries, subordinates are not likely to contradict bosses, but in _____ countries, they often do.
Which of the following firms is most likely to practice top-level management decision making?
A winery owned and run by the owner-manager family
Which of the following forms of business decision-making characterizes most Asian countries?
, group decision making predominates there.
What explains the fact that group decision making predominates in Asian cultures?
Most Asian cultures and religions emphasize harmony and collectivism.
that individuals will work for one company for the majority of their lives.
For international marketers operating in authoritative and delegated societies, the chief problem is:
the chief problem is to identify the individual with authority.
Research has shown that commitment of workers to their companies tended to be higher in countries _____ and ____.
higher in individualism; lower in power distance
According to the high-context/low-context continuum identified by Edward Hall, communication in a high-context culture depends heavily on all of the following EXCEPT:
the low-context culture depends more on
In a high context implicit communication environment who says something, how it is said, and when it is said is very important. Which of the following countries would we find to be "high context implicit" with respect to communication practices?
In a low-context explicit communication culture one would expect to find that verbal exactness in communication dominates other communication variables. Which of the following countries has been described as being low context explicit with respect to communication practices?
Gerard is heading his sales team for negotiations with their Arab partners. He was educated about the communication preferences well in advance by his PR person. Which of the following could be the most common mistake that he might have committed otherwise?
In the United States, Switzerland, Germany, and Norway one thing at a time receives attention with respect to time. This would be called:
tend to concentrate on one thing at a time.
They divide time into small units and are concerned with promptness.
M-time is used in a linear way, and it is experienced as almost tangible, in that one saves time, wastes time, bides time, spends time, and loses time.
being involved with people and being sensitive to relationships is just as important (if not more important) than sticking to a schedule. Ms. Chen could be characterized following which of the following time models?
the simultaneous occurrence of many things and by "a great involvement with people." P-time allows for relationships to build and context to be absorbed as parts of high-context cultures.
What does "no direct foreign marketing" mean?
what does "Infrequent foreign marketing" mean?
What does "regular foreign marketing" mean?
a firm has permanent productive capacity devoted to the production of goods and services to be marketed in foreign markets
What does "International marketing" mean
Full commitment to and involvement in international marketing activities
marketing is synonymous with multinational or multidomestic marketing
what does "global marketing" mean?
firms treat the world, including their home market, as one market. Decisions are no longer nationally focused
Market segmentation decisions are no longer focused on national borders. Instead, market segments are defined by income levels, usage patterns, or other factors that frequently span countries and regions
All of these have been demonstrated to favor faster Internationalization except ___
well-researched long-range plans