-ability to use the pt.'s cultural info in resolving problems
-understanding/accepting their beliefs
1. increases pt. satisfaction
2. increases clinical outcome and compliance
2. cultural imposition
2. being and becoming
2. naturalistic (holistic)
-all events have cause and effect
-human body functions mechanically
-basis for educational programs for doctors/nurses
eg- the germ theory, sun and skin cancer
-native americans: human life is one force in nature
-forces of nature needed for balance
-health is achieved w/ this balance
eg. yin-yang theory (asian)
-therapies: acupuncture, therapeutic touch, massage therapy
-super natural forces eg. voodoo, witchcraft
-intertwined w/ folk medicine
-works b/c its humanistic, community based, performed @ home, inexpensive, comforting
-hx of identified cutural group
-health related beliefs and practices
-address pt. by last name
-introduce yourself by name and position
-use language that is culturally sensitive
-assess pt. knowledge base
-respect pt. values and beliefs
-show respect for support people
-extra time to spend w/ them
-observe pt. and family
-observe pt's perception
-consider same sex RN
optimal nutritional status
-malnutrition or incompetence
-important test of protein stores
1. iron deficiency
2. B12 deficiency
3. folic acid deficiency
-pale, headache, tired, sensitivity to cold, loss of appetite, SOB, PICA
-dark, tarry stools
-take w/ vit. C
-main transport of protein in body
-maintains plasma oncotic pressure
malabsorption, malnutrition, liver dz.
-assess nutritional status, chronic illness, liver dz.
-serves as a transport protein for thyroxin & vit. A
-early indicator or protein stores
-sensitive to acute changes in protein status and sudden demands in protein synthesis (eg. malnutrition, chronic illness/tx, pre-op/post-op)
-iron transport protein
-carries 60-70% body's iron
-early indicator of protein stores in body
> or = to 20%
>55% inc. mortality rate
-assesses hydration status
-elevated w/ dehydration
1. 24 hr. recall
2. food diary
3. direct observation
not always reliable bc not 100% accurate
-write everything down
-more accurate but time consuming
-increased LDLs (lipid levels)
-fats build up under skin--> yellow subdermal bumps/buildup
-dilusions, diarrhea, confusion, scale skin sores, inflammed mucous membs.
-vit. C deficiency
-loss of appetite, diarrhea, fever, rapid breathing, swelling in legs, bleeding gums, skin and membrane hemorrhages, eyes protrude
-vit. A def.
-white spots in eyes
-keratomalacia- may result in permanent destruction of eye
vit. A def.
-vit. B complex def.
-vit. B6 and B12 def.
-dec. reflexes, sensory loss, burning, tingling of hands and feet
-vit. B6 and B12 def.
-confusion and irritability
-the unconscious filling of gaps in ones memory by fabrications that one accepts as facts
1. growth and development
2. body composition
1st 5 feet=100 lbs.
every inch over=5 lbs.
1st 5 feet=106 lbs.
every inch over=6 lbs.
-vit. D def. in adults
-results in dec. Ca salts causing bones to become soft, flexible, brittle, deformed
-vit. D and Ca def.
-can be fixed
-before and after tx. w/ Ca
-delayed growth, muscle weakness, bowed legs, abnormal curve in spine, pain in muscles
-occurs w/ diets consisting w/ mostly carbs and little protein
-common in poorer countries or child abuse
-change in skin pigment, dec. muscle mass, diarrhea, hair texture changes, infections, irritability, large belly, rashes, dec. growth
-assess body fat composition using electroconduction through water, muscle & fat
-must be well hydrated
-more reliable than skinfold measurements
-measures body fat at specific sites by passing infrared light through tissue, fat and ater
-pressure can change results--> not most accurate
-performed on bicep
-looks @ body volume
-weighed outside tank then in water
-pulmonary func. test
-air displacement in box
-food pyramid is gone
-plate w/ protein, veggies, fruits, dairy, grains
-a higher proportion of fat in upper body, esp. abdomen
-heart problems, stroke, etc.
higher proportion of fat in hips and thighs
-grasp fold of skin on post. aspect of arm (triceps)
-apply calipers horizontally
-take measures x3 & average
-compare w/ standard values
-might not work on overwt. pts.
-estimates muscle mass & fat stores
-measure mid-point of upper arm
-used to compare on standard charts
-not as helpful/accurate on elderly