26th of July Movement
· was the revolutionary organization planned and led by Fidel Castro that in 1958 overthrew the Fulgencio Batista government in Cuba. The 26th of July Movement fought the Batista regime on both rural and urban fronts.
Alliance for Progress
· initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961 aimed to establish economic cooperation between North and South America
· increased economic assistance to Latin America to over a billion dollars a year but was cut short of this when Nixon took office.
· a former Salvadoran Army unit, was a rapid-response, counter-insurgency battalion created in 1980 at the U.S. Army's School of the Americas, then located in Panama. It was implicated in some of the most infamous incidents of the Salvadoran Civil War. It was named for Atlacatl, a legendary figure from Salvadoran history.
· was a Chilean army general and president who assumed power in a coup d'état on 11 September 1973. Among his titles, he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean army from 1973 to 1998, president of the Government Junta of Chile from 1973 to 1974 and President of the Republicfrom 1974 until transferring power to a democratically elected president in 1990
Bay of Pigs
· was an unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southernCuba, with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
· The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in theUnited States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days.
Blancos & Colorados
· Two parties that were present in the Uruguayan Civil War also known as the Guerra Grande from 1839 to 1851
· Conservative Blancos represented the business interests of Montevideo
· Liberal Colorados looked after the agricultural interests of the countryside
· agreement between Mexico and the US 1942 for the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the US.
· Formally ended in 1964
Brazil’s Economic Miracle
· The military government had created conditions in which new industries could thrive at the expense of Brazil’s poor majority
· Safe climate for foreign investment meant low wages, no strikes, few restrictions, and no exporpriations
· Fought between Bolivia and Paraguay over control of the northern part of the Gran Chaco region of South America, incorrectly thought to be rich in oil
· Led to the bloodies military conflict fought in South America during th 20th century.
· Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerilla leader, and major figure in the Cuban Revolution
· His experiences led him to believe that Latin American poverty were a complex result of capitalism, monopolies, neocolonialism, and imperialism with the only remedy of Revolution.
· were a group of young Chilean economists who trained at the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger, or at its effective offshoot in the economics department at the Catholic University of Chile. The training was the result of a "Chile Project" organised in the 1950s by the US State Department and funded by the Ford Foundation, which aimed at influencing Chilean economic thinking. They made ISI
Colonel Domingo Monterrosa
· Military commander during the Salvadoran Civil War.
· Militarily trained by American soldiers in Panama and in Taiwan
· Head of the Atlacatl Battalion that was responsible for the El Mozote Massacre.
Constitution of 1917
· Carranza was the first president under this new constitution and it is still the present constitution of Mexico.
· Regrouped Somoza National Guard that created a new U.S. proxy force that raided Nicaragua from bases on the Honduran side of the Honduran-Nicaraguan border.
· Reagan coined them the ‘Freedom Fighters’ and were trained by Argentine military government under CIA supervision
· Put on by the US with the intention to cut off not only US trade but also all trade between Cuba and countries allied with the US.
· Cuba could not trade with the rest of Latin America due to US grip on the OAS—sanctions applied to neutral countries as well
· Cuba’s external trade shifted decisively to distant countries aligned with Soviet Russia.
Cuban Missile Crisis
· Mid—1962 Soviet Union began installing nuclear missile installations and exporting missiles to Cuba—US threatened an ultimatum to Russians
· One of the most dangerous moments of the Cold War; Soviets remove missiles
· Ended any real military threat of the US towards Cuba
· FBI agent and US government advisor for the CIA in Latin America.
· US ambassador to El Salvador in 1981-83 and in Costa Rica and Panama
· Period of state sponsored violence in Argentina from 1976 until 1983
· Victims of violence were left wing activists—trade unionists, students, journalists
· Carried out primarily by Rafael Videla’s military dictatorship as part of Operation Condor sponsored by the US government
El Mozote Massacre
· December 1981 US trained Salvadoran armed forces killed from 200 to 1000 civilians in an anti-guerilla campaign during the Salvadoran Civil War.
· Created by Brazil’s ex-dictator Getúlio Vargas
· Industrialization program and general expansion of government activites were typical of mid-1900s nationalist movements
· Created unions but did not allow them to strike—instead worker grievances were to be dealt with by the government—not controlled by the workers themselves
· Also known as Eva Peron or Evita was the wife of Juan Peron
· Raged against the traditional landowning oligarchy in typical populist form
· and she played a large role in mobilizing the Peronist movement.
· Helped win the vote for Argentine women in 1947 and advocated equal pay for equal work
· Fought in 1982 between UK and Argentina
· Disputed area over the sovereignty
· Argentina surrenders after 74 days and ignited larger protests against the ruling military government which quickened its downfall
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
· President of Brazil till 2003
· Continued privatization program launched by de Mello thus starting the process of denationalization in Brazil
· Former minister of Foreign Affairs and renowned sociologist
· Actions can sometimes be considered as neoliberal
· Is a Marxist Cuban politician, primary leaders of the Cuban Revolution and has held many prominent positions in the Cuban government until he resigned in 2010 due to health reasons
· Initially a lawyer turned politician that critiqued and later helped overthrow President Batista and disliked the US for its political and corporate influence in Cuba.
· Since 1992 a leftwing political party in El Salvador and formerly a coalition of five revolutionary guerrilla organizations
· Main participants in Salvadoran Civil War
· Socialist political party in Nicaraga
· Named after Sandino leader of the resistance in 1930s
· Overthrew Somoza and imposed significant social reforms—literacy, health care, and gender equality
· Were met by opposition by the Contras
· President, dictator, and military leader of Cuba that was closely aligned with and supported by the US.
· Was in power until 1944
· Came to power by overthrowing the government of Gerardo Machado
· Regime was corrupt and repressive and systemtically profited from the exploitation of Cuba’s commercial interests with US corporations and mafia
· Brazilian Dictator—Creator of Estado Novo made a comeback in 1950
· Left-leaning populist
· Mingled between worker’s candidate and using pro-labor opportunistically.
· Estado Novo prosecuted the Communist Party but it was paternalistic in many ways
· Nationalist policies mad him truly popular among the Brazilian porr.
· The process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade.
Good Neighbor Policy
· 1933--Was the foreign policy of the administration of the US President FDR toward Latin American countries as a result of severed Great Britain diplomatic relation
· FDR’s representatives swore off military intervention
· Cuba and Panama were no longer to be “protectorates”
· Result was a change in the mood of US-Latin American relations
Former president of Argentina, and third wife to former president Juan Peron. When he was in office she was vice president and when he died she took over. She was the first female head of state in the western hemisphere.
This was a campaign of political repression involving assassinations and intelligence operations implanted by right-wing dictators. Program was aimed to eradicate all socialist and communist threats against governments. Condor included Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil, with the US supervising.
Venezuelan state owned Petroleum Company. It is the world’s fifth largest oil exporter. PDVSA owns Citgo. After a lock out of workers, Hugo Chavez fired 19,000 employees and replaced them with employees loyal to Chavez. It considers itself indistinguishable from the state, with its social programs running the country’s socialist revolution.
A political philosophy that compares “the people” against “the elite” and urges social and political system changes. What appeals to the general mass of the population, regardless of class distinction and political partisanship.
Was an underground radio network of the anti government FMNLF during the Salvadorian Civil War
Non governmental American organization aimed at promoting human rights, solidarity, and non-violence. Comprised of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Uruguay. Adolfo Perez Esquivel was one of the founders and winners of the nobel peace prize.
An United States corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas) grown on third world plantations and sold in the United States and Europe. Formed in 1899, It had a deep and long-lasting impact on the economic and political development of several Latin American countries.
Sections in Latin America with High Crime rates.