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Info about the test (per Dr. Green)

- Probably about 5 pts from final lecture material
- 95 pts from old quizzes about 13-14 pts per quiz (probably 2-4 questions)

Per Dustin

- Same format as quizzes
- No True and False but know the concepts that were presented in T &F questions

Quiz 1 -Chapter 12

- Molarity (M)= moles solute/ liters solution
- Molality (m)= moles solute/ kg solvent
- Colligative properties- physical properties that depend on the # of particles, not the type of particles
- Calculate boiling point elevation and freezing point depression

Molarity (M)

moles solute/ liters solution

Quiz 2- Chapter 13

- Know 0 order and 1 st order rate laws (S is always to the -1 exponent!)
- Rate = -1/a([A]/t) = -1/c([C]/t), for the reaction aA cC
- Integrated rate law (same as what we did in ch 19 but k is )
- AM quiz 2 #3, PM quiz 2 #3: Use the balanced equation and the data to answer the following questions

Molality (m)= moles solute/ kg solvent

To go between the two you must know: 1) the density of the solvent to get volume of solvent and 2) the volume of the solute and solvent to get total volume of the solution

Molality (m)

moles solute/ kg solvent

Calculate boiling point elevation and freezing point depression

- T f = T f(solution)
- T b = T b(solution) ? T b(solvent) = k b x m

T f = T f(solution)

T f(solvent) = -k f x m

Integrated rate law (same as what we did in ch 19 but k is )

Ln([N t ]/[N 0 ]) = -kt

What is the order of fluorine in the rate law equation of this reaction

0 order

What are the units for the rate constant

M -4 S -1

What is the overall order of the equation

5 th order

Le Châtelier’s Principle

when any change in concentration, temp, pressure, or volume is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the system responds by attaining a new equilibrium condition that minimizes the impact of the change

Quiz 3- Chapter 14

- Equilibrium- condition where the forward reaction and the reverse reaction proceed at the same rate
- Don?t worry about the problems with quadratic formula
- Equilibrium constant expression- the ratio of equilibrium constants raised to the power equal to the stoichiometric...
- Le Châtelier?s Principle: when any change in concentration, temp, pressure, or volume is imposed on a system at...

What are the units for the rate constant M

- 4 S
- 1

Review AM quiz 2 #8, PM quiz 2 #7

Use integrated rate law and half life equation (t 1/2 =0.693/k) to solve

K w

K a x K b

pK w

pK a + pK b

pH

pK a + log [conjugate base]/[weak acid] or pK b +log [conjugate acid]/[weak base]

Quiz 4- Chapter 15

- Acid ?Base chemistry is mostly numerical mostly math problems
- Only use ICE tables for weak acids and bases, not for strong acids and bases because they completely dissociate in solution
- K w = 1 x 10
- K w = K a x K b
- pK w = pK a + pK b
- pH = pK w ? pOH or pK w =pH +pOH
- Hydrolysis (could be on final)

Quiz 5- Chapter 16

- Henderson- Hasselbalch equation (from ch 15)
- K sp expressions- the solubility constant expressions
- Relationship of K sp to molar solubility (see AM and PM Quiz 5 #s 8 & 9)
- Q ip

K w = 1 x 10

14

Hydrolysis (could be on final)

See AM and PM quiz 4 # 13

Henderson- Hasselbalch equation (from ch 15)

- Only for buffer solutions
- pH=pK a + log [conjugate base]/[weak acid] or pK b +log [conjugate acid]/[weak base]

Quiz 6- Chapter 17 &18

Relationships between

K sp expressions- the solubility constant expressions

- Only involves the products of the reaction
- Will be mostly numerical problems

Relationship of K sp to molar solubility (see AM and PM Quiz 5 #s 8 & 9)

Molar solubility- the molarity of a solute in a saturated aqueous solution

Molar solubility- the molarity of a solute in a saturated aqueous solution

- Set up ICE table to find equilibrium values
- Convert solubility (g/L) to M and plug M into equilibrium values as s, solve for K sp

Q ip

reaction quotient = the product of the initial concentrations of the products

reaction quotient = the product of the initial concentrations of the products

- Q ip > K sp precipitation should occur
- Q ip < K sp precipitation cannot occur
- Q ip = K sp solution is saturated

Relationships between

- Gibbs equation: G = H- TS
- Criterion for spontaneous change

Nonspon at all T

- G = -RT lnK
- Voltaic Cell Components
- Balancing Redox Reactions
- Quiz 7- Chapters 18-19
- Integrated rate law again- use to find and substitute in ˝ life equation
- G = -nFE 0 cell
- Nernst Equation
- Electrolysis

G = -RT lnK

See AM and PM quiz 6 #6

Voltaic Cell Components

- Anode- where oxidation occurs, decreases in size, where negative ions flow
- Cathode- where reduction occurs, increases in size(plating), where positive ions flow
- Salt bridge- completes the circuit
- Electrodes- metals (either cathode or anode)

Balancing Redox Reactions

- Separate into the ˝ reactions
- Balance everything except H and O
- Balance oxygen with water
- Balance water with H +
- Balance charge with e -
- Cancel out electrons by multiplication
- Combine ˝ reactions
- Check that charges are balanced--- STOP HERE IF IN ACIDIC SOLUTION
- If in basic solution, add OH - s to both sides and cancel waters

2 4 He

- 2
- 4

Beta

1 0 e

1 0 e

1

Electron Capture

- 1 0 e
- 1

Electrolysis

Example

Example

CrBr 3 + HCl

H 2 O 2H 2 O 4e - + 4H + +O 2

Look at E 0 values for each possible equation, the one with the highest value will occur at the cathode and the one with the lowest value will occur at the anode

?G

-nFE 0 cell

Cathode (reduction)

Cr 3+ Cr 3+ + 3 e - ? Cr

Anode (oxidation)

Br - 2 Br - ? Br 2 + 2e -

About this deck

Author: Anonymous

Created: 2010-04-27

Updated: 2011-07-20

Size: 46 flashcards

Views: 1092

Created: 2010-04-27

Updated: 2011-07-20

Size: 46 flashcards

Views: 1092

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