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displacement is a change in position; velocity is the rate of change of displacement, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

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Δx = area under v-t graph

Δv = area under a-t graphdisplacement is a change in position; velocity is the rate of change of displacement, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity

Kinematics

F_{net} = ma

the sum of all forces causes a mass to accelerate

Net Force

F_{f} = μF_{N}

the friction force is caused by an object pressing on another object

Friction Force

the acceleration of an object experiencing UCM always points towards the center of the circle

centripetal acceleration

τ = rF

a torque is generated when a force acts a perpendicular distance from a pivot point

torque

p = mv

momentum comes from a mass moving at a velocity

momentum

J =FΔt (when the force is constant)

J =area (when the force changes)

impulse is a force acting during a time period

impulse

FΔt = mΔv (when force is constant)

impulse is equal to the change in momentum

impulse momentum

m_{1}v_{01}+ m_{2}v_{02}= m_{1}v_{1}+ m_{2}v_{2}

the total momentum before a collision/explosion is equal to the total momentum after

collision-explosion

K = * 1/2 mv ^{2} *

*kinetic energy is the energy of a mass with a velocity ^{}*

kinetic energy

U_{g} = mgh

gravitational potential energy is the energy of a mass in a gravitational field with height

gravitational potential energy

W = FΔx

work is the energy done by an external force moving through a displacement

mechanical work

power is the rate of energy transfer

power (general definition)

P = Fv

power is the rate at which an external force moves through a displacement

power (in terms of velocity)

F_{s} = kΔx

the force in a spring is generated when a spring with a constant k is stretched a distance of Δx

spring force

U_{s} = * 1/2 kΔx ^{2}*

*the energy stored in a spring when it is displaced*

spring potential energy

the period of a spring depends on mass and spring constant (not amplitude) HINT: it's TIME to eat 2 PIs with a SQUIRT of MilK

period of a spring

the period of a pendulum depends on length and gravitational field HINT: it's TIME to eat 2 PIs with a SQUIRT of LeG

period of a pendulum

period and frequency are reciprocals of each other

relationship between frequency and period

Each mass experiences the same attractive force. The force increases as the distance decreases.

gravitational force between any 2 masses

any 2-mass system has potential energy

gravitational potential energy between any 2 masses

absolute pressure includes atmospheric pressure

abosulte pressure in a fluid

gauge pressure is the pressure on an object submerged at a depth h in a fluid

gauge pressure

the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the volume of the floating object

buoyant force

volume flowrate always remains constant

fluid flow continuity

volume flow rate is the cross-sectional area times the velocity of flow

volume flow rate

The fluid form of conservation of energy!

Bernoulli's principle

Pressure is defined as the force acting on an area.

pressure (general definition)

For an ideal gas, pressure and volume are inversely related, but both are directly related to temperature.

ideal gas law

The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is related to temperature.

internal energy in a gas

The average velocity of a gas molecule depends on the temperature of the gas.

velocity of a gas molecule

The work in a thermal system happens only when there is a change in volume.

thermal work

Efficiency is the energy that you get out of a system over the energy that you put in.

efficiency (general)

Carnot efficiency is related to the high and low (cold) operating temperatures.

ideal (Carnot) efficiency

The electrostatic force decreases as 1/r^{2} as the charges are further apart.

electrostatic force between 2 charges

A positive charge in an electric field will feel a force in the same direction as field.

electrostatic force on a charge in a field

A positive charge creates a field that points out of the charge.

electrostatic field created by one charge

If a test charge feels a force, then an electric field exists.

electrostatic field in terms of force

Electric field strength decreases as distance from the source increases.

electrostatic field created by a potential separated a distance

Two charges have potential energy.

electrostatic potential energy of two charges

A charge that experiences a potential has potential energy.

electrostatic potential energy of a charge in a potential

The potential created by a source charge.

electrostatic potential created by one charge

Q=VC

The charge stored on a capacitor depends on voltage and capacitance.

charge stored on a capacitor

The capacitance of a capacitor made up of plates with area that are separated by a distance.

capacitance

The energy stored in a charged capacitor depends on capacitance and voltage^{2}

energy stored on a capacitor

Current is the flow rate of charge.

current (definition)

Resistance of a wire depends on the material, it increases with length, and it increases with smaller diameters.

resistance of a wire

V=IR

Voltage is proportional to current times resistance.

Ohm's Law

Power is the rate of energy transfer and it depends on current, voltage, and resistance.

Power in a circuit

All series resistors have the same current and the voltages add up to the total.

Equivalent resistance for resistors in series

All parallel resistors have the same voltage. The current in each branch add up to the total.

Equivalent resistance for resistors in parallel

All series capacitors can be combined as the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals.

Equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series

All parallel capacitors can be combined as the sum.

Equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel

The magnetic force on a charge that is moving in a magnetic field. The velocity and magnetic field must be perpendicular.

magnetic force on a charge moving in a magnetic field

The magnetic force felt by a current carrying wire that is placed in a magnetic field. The current and field must be perpendicular.

magnetic force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field

The magnetic field created by a wire that has a current running through it.

magnetic field around a current carrying wire

The amount of magnetic field that passes through an area.

magnetic flux

A voltage, or electromotive force (emf), is created by a changing magnetic flux.

emf generated by a changing magnetic field

The voltage created by a rectangular loop of height “l” that moves into or out of a magnetic field with a velocity, “v.”

emf generated by a rectangular loop moving through a magnetic field

The velocity of a wave is the product of its frequency and wavelength.

velocity of a wave

The index of refraction of a material is the ratio of the speed of light to the velocity of light in the material.

index of refraction

n=1,2,3,4…

The sound wave in a pipe open at both ends resonates at every ½ wavelength.
frequency of a pipe that is open at both ends

n=1,3,5,7…

The sound wave in a pipe open at both ends resonates at every ½ wavelength, starting with ¼ wavelength
frequency of a pipe that is open at only one end

The angle of incidence and the angle of refraction are related to the index of refraction of the two materials.

Snell's law

The critical angle is the angle at which light will not escape a material.

critical angle

The relationship between the image distance, the object distance, and the focal length of a mirror or lens.

mirror & lens equation

Magnification is related to the image and object distances.

magnification

The focal length is half the radius of curvature.

relationship between focal length and radius of curvature

The path difference is equal to the distance between slits times the sin of the angle made by the light passing through the slit.

diffraction pattern path difference

The distance between bright pattern spots is related to the wavelength, distance to the screen, and the distance between the slits.

diffraction pattern spacing

Light waves change phase twice when reflecting off the outside and inside surfaces of a bubble.

minimum thickness for thin film constructive interference (bubble)

Light waves change phase twice when reflecting off the outside and inside surfaces of a bubble.

minimum thickness for thin film destructive interference (bubble)

Light waves change phase once when reflecting off a film on top of glass.

minimum thickness for thin film constructive interference (glass)

Light waves change phase once when reflecting off a film on top of glass.

minimum thickness for thin film destructive interference (glass)

A photon is a light particle. Photons have energy.

Energy of a photon

The maximum kinetic energy of an emitted electron is equal to the energy that is absorbed from the photon (hf) minus the work that it takes to eject the electron (φ)

maximum kinetic energy of an emitted electron

All moving particles exhibit wave behaviors and have a wavelength.

deBroglie wavelength

The change in energy of a nuclear mass is equal to the change in mass times the speed of light squared.

rest energy of a mass

The nucleus decays into a daughter nucleus and a helium nucleus.

alpha decay

The nucleus decays into a daughter nucleus, and electron, and a neutrino

beta decay

An excited nucleus emits a high energy photon.

gamma decay

An excited nucleus is bombarded by a neutron, causing the nucleus to split into 2 daughter nuclei and more neutrons.

fission

hf = φ

The minimum frequency of a photon that can ejecta photoelectron.

The minimum frequency of a photon that can ejecta photoelectron.

cutoff frequency for emitting photoelectrons

About this deck

Author: Anne G.

Created: 2011-12-06

Updated: 2011-12-06

Size: 83 flashcards

Views: 271

Created: 2011-12-06

Updated: 2011-12-06

Size: 83 flashcards

Views: 271

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