WHAT? --> Receive and analyze
Provide multiple examples, Highlight critical features, Provide multiple media and formats, and Support background context.
HOW? --> plan and execute
provide flexible models of skilled performance; Provide opportunities to practice with supports;Provide ongoing, relevant feedback; and Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill
WHY? -->evaluate and set priorities
Offer choices of context and tools;Offer adjustable levels of challenge; Offer choices of learning content; and Offer choices of rewards.
ability to separate object from environment ie: eat too much on Thanksgiving and pass on desert even though it looks good, only gets what is on grocery list unless there is a sale
inability to separate object from environment even though someone makes a grocery list they’ll probably get more bc it looks good, eat way too much Thanksgiving and keep eating
predisposition/natural way to perceive and organize info measured by tests and actual measures- how we use the info we know
identifying and defining a problem, choosing strategy, and monitoring outcome IQ test ie: compare and contrast characters, solve math word problem, analyze how the immune system fights bacterial infections
generating novel ideas for solving problems risk takers bc ideas might be unpopular @1st ie: write a short story with Tom Sawyer as character, create your own math word problem, suggest ways to cope with increasing immunity bacteria
IQ scores Factors
Emotional and verbal responsiveness of parents, parent’s involvement, availability of appropriate play materials, activities, and resources in the home
SES, race, gender
dialogue and discussion--> continuous
ie: studying with other people
ie: reading a textbook
communication of thought through words or
the changing of info
Effective discourse/how to promote it
anything that would fully prepare you to do a presentation or soemthing of the sort
how to promote it: demonstrate, pracitce, feedback, review
verbal--> both spoken and signed, dialect
written--> written words, assignments ie: write most important concept down
the HOW of math
sequencing the actions- addition knows that 2+2=4
steps to figure soemthing out
the WHY of math
- understanding the concept
ie: if i have 2 things and have another two things and merge them together, then i have 4
conceptual processing -> make connections, ideas, understand what addition means
the WHEN of math
what cirbumstances require what type of calculation- when do you need to add, sub, mult etc.
what types of knowledge are there and when do i need to use them?
Drill and practice
Chall’s stages of reading development
Stage 0 (birth->6/7yrs) preliteracy concepts, emergent literacy-recognize individual words/letters
Stage 1 (6/7 yrs) phonological recording skills, phonemic awareness
Stage 2 (7/8 yrs) reading fluency, visual based retreival, phonetic approach
Stage 3 (9-13 yrs) reading to comprehend
Satge 4 (14-18 yrs/ highschool) continue to read to learn
the knowledge that spoken words contain smaller units of sound, is a form of metalinguistic awareness that is important for later reading aquisitio... words can be divided into...
onsets and rhymes (b- at)
phonemes (b, a, t)
Phonological recoding skills
ie: word "cat" can think in head what it looks like and that it's an animal
when you read what you write in the margins
-highlight, write keys,
linking words together to form meaningful units
ie: the sick boy went home= there was a boy. he was sick.
linking of concepts and ideas together
-combining propositions to meaningful units
Emergent reading/literacy (and examples)
When we read we use a large number of skills simultaneously. What are some of the skills used and how do they relate to reading? What role does working memory play in this?
percieve single letters, letter combinations
translate letters -> sounds
recognize visual appearance of common words
hold chunks of text in working memory while interpreting meaning
combine parts of text into understandable wholes
info processing model
utilizes working memory- keeps current info active, retrieves info from perm mem, utilizes strategies
automazation of lexical access
growing working memory capacity
greater related knowledge
better comp monitoring
higher adaptive variations in strategies
What facilitates the transition from “learning to read” to “reading to learn”?
- reciprocal reading,
- dialogic reading,
-sqr3 (survey, question, read, recite, review)
What role does context play in learning to read?
bow vs. bow
perceive whole words
lexical access is automated
use grammatical cues to create mental representations
simplifies writing task so only a single goals needs to be at a time
ie: essay about birds
little regard for effective communication- writing down ideas as they come to mind
what the writer would like to say vs. what he has already written
-expressing ideas on paper
visual perceptional skills-> you need to be able to identify letter patterns and correct shapes of letters. Legible handwriting and visual perceptual skills.
have to know what letter looks like when you are writing it,
know how to physically write a letter
Cognitively, what makes writing a difficult task?
-attention- have to be mindful od what hands or finders are doing. part of limited working memory space
-metacognition- what are the goals- thinking about how to write successfully
-strategy use- what words are you going o use? what order?
-visual spatial abilities
What can teachers do to help develop good writers?
spend more time planning/translation
-make assignments real
-provide direct instruction
-practice with feedback
-time to plan
For most students, the revision of their own written work is challenging and difficult. Why? What techniques can be employed to improve one’s revising skills?
don't know weaknesses, common writing mistakes
-monitor, predict, generate ideas, share knowledge/presence of vocab, syntax (how you say it), relatioship between words and gist- see words, read, and understand gist
reading- see words have to understand
writing- have ideas in head that have to be put into words