an int'l commitment to the human development of Palestine refugees: formed 1949 after the Arab Israeli war
-Palestinian Liberation Organization, led by Yassir Arafat.
-Leading political & military force for Palestinian nationalism.
-Palestinians held raids & terrorist strikes to keep Israel from Occupied Territories.
-Invaded Lebanon, became major base.
(conservative) right wing party, believe that Israel is entitled to take over all land controlled by the Jewish people in biblical times. Israeli conservative party that accelerates towards settlement movement. Party takes a forceful attitude towards Palestinians.
-Sprang in '67 after 6 day war, and made official in '74 after Yom Kippur War.
-Messianic and political movement committed to establishing Jewish settlements
-political organ., but religious in essence; stemmed from teachings of early religious Zionist figure, Rabbi Isaac Kook
-believed that spreading Judaism through as much of biblical Israel as possible would bring about coming of Messiah.
-third president of Egypt after death of Nasser in 1970
-not taken seriously by Israel even though continually threatened to launch offensive and take back Sinai.
-dismissed his soviet advisers and began mobilization of Egyptian army in spring of '73
-led Egyptians in Yom Kippur War
-signed peace agreement w/PM Menachim Begin (Camp David Accords '78)
-'82: Pal. Refugee camps in Lebanon; Israel had control of Beirut; conflict bet. Pals.; Muslims in Lebanese Civil War; Israel's Lebanon War
-Israel said would protect camps and not allow PLO military presence there, but once muslims killed Christian Pres. of Lebanon, Israel allowed Christian Lebanese Forces into camps b/c IDF was told they were there to search for PLO terrorists hiding among civilians.
-instead, Christians slaughtered bet. 700-3500 people
-'87 to '93: Pal. uprising against Israel's gain of disputed territories from 6 day war, led by PLO & Arafat. - violence spread on both sides, killing of civilians, Pals. attacking soldiers.
-led to emergence of Hamas; suicide bombings in '93.
-internat'l condemnation of Israel due to large #s Pals. deaths, however many were caused by other Pals. who they thought collaborated w/Israel.
-brought internat'l attention to Pal. cause as potential independent body.
flight that was bombed down in 1988
bomb placed by operatives based in libya
killed all 259 passengers on board
- Assumed to have been Palestinian operatives, though different Muslim groups took responsibility
- 1991, Spain hosting conference inviting Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinians and sponsored by US and Soviet Union. PLO NOT INVITED represented by other Palestinian delegates. Madrid channel for the 1993 talks in Oslo Norway.
-secret negotiations bet. Israel and PLO began '93
-held in Oslo, Norway under the cover of a conference hosted by Fafo, a Norwegian social research inst.
-"Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements" (DOP) was not normal peace treaty; it was an agreement that set out specific steps to reach permanent solution to conflict &it established a 5 yr timetable over which to complete them.
-process by which Israel would transfer control of portions West Bank+Gaza to PLO.
-DOP addresses peace (briefly) in only two places
-majority of DOP focuses on 2 subjects: Israeli withdrawal + establishment of sovereign Arab institutions (elections, legislative council, police force, etc)
-DOP itself contains no explicit recognition of Israel's right to exist or to live in peace and does not renounce violence. Yet, Israel still initially accepted the agreement to withdraw from the territories.
-2nd intifada (more Israelis killed by terr. since famous Rabin-Arafat shake than in any period of like duration in Israel history)