a comprehensive theory that attempts to explain both normal and abnormal behavior. Behavior was caused by unconscious innate biological and sexual urges
behavior that is inconsistent with the individual's developmental, cultural, and societal norms, creates emotional distress, or interferes with daily functioning.
Percentage of adults who suffer from psychological disorder at some point in thief life
Most common disorders in U.S.
Disorders common to women and disorders common to men
Men- more likely to suffer from alchohol/drug use and dependence
Women- more likely to suffer from anxiety and mood disorders
process where by a circular instrument was used to cut away sections of the skull
Classical Condition: UCS is repeatedly paired with a CS, resulting in the UCR. After sufficient pairings, the CS presented alone, becomes capable of eliciting a conditioned response (CR) which is similar in form and content to the UCR.
UCS- Food Powder
UCR- salivation in dogs
CS- ringing bell
CR- salivation from ringing bell alone
John B. Watson
believed in behaviorism, the only appropriate objects of scientific study were observable behaviors, not inner thoughts or feelings.
when the psychologist is providing treatment to people with psych disorders, he or she relies on the findings of research.
the process whereby years of living with a disorder cause changes in the brain.
a form of learning in which behavior is acquired or changed by the events that happen afterward. Shaping.
a contingent event that strengthens the behavior that precedes it
Primary: Satisfy basic needs of life or make one feel good.
Secondary: objects have have acquired value because they become associated with primary reinforcers. Money, because it symbolizes the ability to acquire other reinforcers.
the person need not actually to the behavior in order to acquire it. Models. Social learning.
behavior occurs because of an individual's learning history
proposes that abnormal behavior is a result of distorted cognitive (mental) processes, NOT internal forces or external events. Our perception of events.
(Originator: Aaron Beck)
People with depression have three types of negative thoughts: a negative view of the self, the world and the future.
the idea that psychological disorders may have a biological predisposition (diathesis) that lies dormant until environmental stress occurs and the combination produces abnormal behavior.
(this is biopsychosocial)
the idea that biological, psychological and social factors probably contribute to the development of abnormal behavior and different factors are important for different individuals.
Identified Hallucinations, delusions, melancholia and hysteria
Produced a diagnostic classification system.
Believed abn. beh. was from environmental (seasons) and/or physical factors created imbalance with four bodily humours.
yellow bile(mania), black bile(melancholia), blood(courage and hope) and phlegm(calm and unemotional attitude)
Removal of patients from family for treatment. > foreshadowing institutionalization
process of gathering info about a client and his/her environment.
assessment process that attempts to identify psychological problems or
predict the risk of future problems among people who are not referred for clinical assessment
he presence of more than one disorder
Variables important to consider in assessment of abnormal behavior
Age, gender developmental status, individuals involved in testing situation and testing environment, cultural factors, context, is it causing distress or functional impairment?
identification of an illness
a process in which a clinician weighs how likely it is that a person has one diagnosis instead of another.
also called behavioral analysis or functional assessment; a strategy of behavioral assessment in which a clinician attempts to identify causal links between problem behaviors and environmental variables.
asks very specific questions to discover the full sequence of events and behaviors surrounding the patient's primary problems. Helps identify important functional relationships
a procedure within behavioral assessment in which the patient observes and records his or her own behavior as it happens. Contextual variables and sequences of events = helpful.
the measurement of behavior as it occurs by someone other than the person whose behavior is being observed. Event recording and interval recording
assess avoidance behavior by asking a patient to approach a feared situation as closely as possible
the degree to which a test measures what is was intended to assess.
how well a psychological assessment instrument produces consistent results each time it is given
normative comparisons, standard deviation, self-referent comparisons (individuals own norms/progress).
agreement between 2 therapists/clinicians
originally developed in 1952 to classify mental disorders; revisions have been made over subsequent years and this document is a standard of care in psychiatry and psychology
system of diagnosis and classification utilized in DSM which requires classifying a clients behavior on 5 different dimensions.
Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
ex. Dependent Personality Disorder
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)- a rating assigned by a a clinician to describe a patients overall functioning and well-being. 0-100
“all or nothing”. However, symptoms rarely fit neatly into one category
ex. DSM and ICD
views disorders on a continuum.
pros: high frequency of comorbidity and w/ in category variability(2 people with same diagnosis can have very different sets of symptoms and experiences)
-more complex, makes communication difficult
Poddar told therapist that he had gun & believed he dangerous, told cops & questioned Pod but did not warn Tara b/c of patient psychologist confidentiality. "rational", 2 months later, killed her. The defendents had duty to warn tara
therapists' duty to use reasonable care to protect third parties from dangers posed by patients.
professional misconduct or unreasonable lack of skill. Work must meet commonly accepted professional standards. Prohibits interpersonal relationships until at least 2 years after the termination of therapy
Role of Institutional Review Board (I.R.B.)
committee charged by research institution to review and approve scientific research
IQ cut-off to meet criteria for mental retardation
70 (2 standards below the mean)
including children with disabilities into regular classrooms, whenever possible. Promotes acceptance and self-esteen.
qualitative impairment in social interaction, restricted and stereotyped behaviors interests and activities, but NO deficits in communication and at least average intellectual functioning.
*Type of Autism w/ out any of the debilitating symtoms
characterized by qualitative impairment in social interactions AND communications and a pattern of restricted and stereotyped behaviors, interests and activities.
disorder of written expression. More than sloppy handwriting. It includes difficulty composing grammatically correct sentences; frequent grammatical, punctuation or spelling errors; and diminished ability to organize coherent written paragraphs. No trouble presenting orally.
Deficits associated with ADHD
More prone to accidents and injury and criminal behavior
Difficulty with executive functioning
recurrent, compulsive consumption of nonnutritive items. “magpie”. Often in children with developmental disabilities, mental retardation, schizophrenia, and sometimes with people with no psychological disorder.
repeated elimination of feces on or into inappropriate places by someone over age 4.
recently eaten food is effortlessly regurgitated into the mouth, followed by rechewing, reswallowing, or spitting it out. Episodes may occur several times a day and may last for over an hour.
highlighting behaviors that are apparent before 30 months of age.
the inability to make eye contact and to recognize facial expressions, and a lack of interest in social interaction
Delays in acquiring spoken language. ~20-30% w/ autistic disorder do not speak at all.
The inability to start or continue a convo, and stereotyped or unusual language, such a echolalia (repetition of the last word, sound or phrase)
intense preoccupation with a particular interest. Adherence to routines and self injurious behaviors.