Philosophy 316- Second Test
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Rule Following Sense
Decision Making Sense
Decision Making Sense
Feelings and emotions are not a reliable guide (may be clouded by predjudices)
Respect for others. Taking into account the interests of others
Involves careful consideration of all relevant factors--I examine all reasonable alternatives, short and long consequences, and am lucid in gals and purposes.
when we treat people with consideration we build relationships.
Is going the 1st mile and fulfilling duty and obligation
Does not require self-sacrifice
Requires that one shares equally with others
Love (“philos” love expressed by commitment and loyalty)
Going the 2nd mile, doing more than is required. “If someone forces you to go one mile with him, go two miles!”
Will motivate one to give up one’s share for others
Power (Greek word “dunamis”) is to serve God and others
Power and authority are to disciple peoples and transform nature in unity and harmony with God’s purposes
Power and wealth is opportunity for service. Consistent with “noblesse oblige”
True happiness (Eudemonia) is only achieved by obeying God and doing His will.
To subdue the earth and exercise dominion over it—to work with nature for the common good.
The Kosmos is that system apart from the purposes of God or apart from an ethical lifestyle.
Power is to dominate
Power over nature to produce goods and creature comforts.
-This is not bad in itself, but the bottom line is MOTIVE
Power and wealth are the measures of success (Power is what you can marshall as resources in a crisis
Happiness (not eudemonia) is achieved by acquiring possessions.
Derived from Greek word “Utile” to do good, or “Utilios” that which is good.
Holds that an action is ethical if and only if the sum total of utilities produced by that act is greater than the sum total of liabilities.
John Stuart Mill
Founder of Utilitarianism
All mankind is under the dominance of two masters: Pain and Pleasure- Peoples lives are chiefly influenced by these two factors, and a persons day is catergorized by them.
Said that humans are pleasure seeking organisms
Disciple of Bentham
Married Harriet Taylor, a woman of rare buty and intellect
They co-authored the book "On Liberty", discussing utilitarianism and womans rights
Pioneers of womans rights and labored long to pursuade the English Parliment to give women the right to vote
Claimed that humans, in seeking pleasure, seek to develop their higher faculities
Added "Good and Beneficial" to Bethams definition
Tangible Desirables or Pleasures
Tangible Desirables or Pleasures
Homes, Cars, Wealth, Education, Etc.
Lonliness, Bitterness and Hatred, Rage, Rejection, Unforgiveness, and inferiority complex.
This is the category that leadership encounters in the marketplace.
Leadership must connect with employees and enable them to overcome dysfunctions
The end justifies the means--Consequences count
Results make the action moral or ethical
It is a self centered theory
An action in and of itself has no value--What gives it value or worth is its consequences
No one persons happiness is more important than anyone else's happiness
Power is to serve God and others!
Refering to Judeo-Christian World-View-UNSELFISH
Too limited a view-Too simplistic- Limited to the view of happiness- Does not reflect the total picture.
The cost/benefits only apply to me or moy group(Not broad enough)
It does not consider others.
Assessing the situation
Identifying all the stakeholders (players), determing who is affected
Ascertaining the liabilities and benefits for all involved.
Make the decision as to which route will benefit the most(or which will harm the least)
The considering of consequences.
Every leader should perform that act which will bring about the greatest among of good in their situation at that particular crisis. These do not believe in the setting of company rules, because they believe that each situation is unique so there is no set company policy for that particular situation.
Difficult to calculate intganibles- how to determine benefits or harms so that they can be measured?
It focuses our attention on results
It requires us to see how society is affected by these results
It reinforces impartiality by treating everyone equally
Technically means duty or obligation
Ethically speaking it means to simply "do the right thing"
The End odes not justify the means. This standard is not "consequentialist" in nature; the results are not ethical unless ethical means are used to produce them
This is also called the "non-consequentialist" theory
The emphasis is on doing what is required regardless of the consequences
Author of "The Metaphysics of Morality"
Moral Theory emphasizes duties, motives, the dignity and worth of people,a dn a moral law that is unchanging and absolute, illustarting his Christian roots.
Said that "nothing is good in itself unless motivated by good will"
Required that everyone be treated as a free person equal to everyone else
Idealist Philosopher who added the concept of autonomy, one of the most basic concepts of Western Ethics
K-1 Do not make exceptions for yourself.
K-2 The involved parties must be given sufficent information in order to make rational decisions (Full Disclosure)
K-3 The Publicity Test
Describe what I am doing.
Ask whether every one can do the same. (Universality)
Would I accept this being done to me? (Reversibility) This principle is a valid guide to conduct. Everyone is worth the same. Why should I be permitted to do what others cannot?
The right to choose, the right to be a free thinker. It also involves problem solving, creativity, and making decisions.
Also involves self-determinism- the right to pursue what is fulfilling.
Is everyone able to make their own choices?
Are others being given sufficient information needed to make a rational decision?
Are they being given freedom to choose?
Autonomy then, full disclosure, is being given sufficient information and freedom to make a choice based on that information.
It must be universalized.
It must show respect for each party involved.
It must stand the publicity test.
When Utility cannot be assertained use ___________________?
Are good only because they lead to "ultimate good" things.
(Ex. Trip to the dentist's office)
Are things desired in themselves.
(Ex. A long life)
Latin- meaning at first sight or first glance
These are practices that humans normally observe, but can be overridden for more important ones
(Ex. Breaking a promise to save a life)
Who are the Stakeholders
- The Ethics of the AlternativesThe Practical Restraints
The Only Time Religion will Lose is when _________________.
Protects rights of citizens
"No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law"
An informal meeting between the employer and the employee informing the employee of the charge and giving him an opportunity to speak to those charges.
A written notice of a hearing with a list of charges against the accused
The right of the accused to respond to those charges by mail or in person
The right to have an attorney present
The accused must have a min of 30 days advance notice of the hearing
The notice must be by certified mail
It is a Federal Amendment and Usurps EAW
Principle in common law doctrine that has evolved in the marketplace since the 1800's
This states that in the absence of law or contract, companies have the right to demote and/or fire whomever and whenever they please.
Still prevalent today in rural areas and the deap South
It is not applicable in the public sector (Government and Schools)
Freedom of Religon, freedom of speech, freedom of peaceful assembly, freedom of the press, life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. This includes freedom of conscience and self-determinism (right to pursue one's own interests)
Row v. Wade added the "right to privacy of one's body"
The U.S. Supreme Court in San Antonio v. Rodriguez ruled that ___________.
Humans have intrinsic value.Humans are valuable in and of themselves. If there is no recognition that every human is valuable, then there is no basis for human rights.
Rights give every person self-respect
Rights are necessary to support freedom and well being. (Ex. Right to vote and the right of free press.)
When those rights are disruptive to society, or detrimental to the purposes of the collective people as a whole
When in the exercise of one's rights violates anothers rights
(Sidenote: The protections of society take priority over freedom of religon)
For Cause Dismissal
- Result of theft
- Gross insubordination (failure to obey an order at work)
- Release of privileged information
- Damaging the company's reputation (burden of proof is on the company)
- Employee is considered "Personna non-grata" (not welcom to remain with the company)
Termination- Poor job performance/failure to meet expectations
- Due Process Require
Layoffs- Iply that effected employee is subject to recall when economic conditions improve
Position Eliminating- Downsizing
Employee is no longer welcome to stay with the company
Due process required
"Sleeping with the Enemy"
States that citizens are protected against illegal search and seizure by the government.
Applies to home, public, and at work.
Bans companies from secretly monitoring empolyee activites. Now companies must infrom their emplyees when hired that they are subject to be monitored at any time. This has been upheld by the courts as long as it is company policy.
Companies say this is to prevent theft and esionage.
Eavesdropping and recording telephone conversations
When employee behavior is disruptive to productivity
When employee behavior damages the company's reputation
Hire a P.I. (more radical measure)
Must be written in company policy and employee given full autonomy. More strictly inforced is the "no-no" of leadership dating suborinates (spirit of the "dumb ass). Basically the "No Dating" Clause
Polygraph- fast, economical, reveals behavioral tendencies.
- Disadvantages- are the stigma of having to undergo the test and only 75% reliability.
Urine Samples- caution- must be done in privacty and dignity
- No Strip Searches
- Usually done at private clinics at company's expense
Machine that Test Hair Follicles
- Very Expensive
- Can detect presence of drugs taken 6 months prior to test
- This is the tren in the American Marketplace
Determining the fair distribution of benefits and burdens—determining the “fair” basis for distribution of goods—examining the factors of equality, effort, need, and accomplishment
Begun by Karl Marx, a 19th century German Philosopher.
Defined struggle between the Bourgeoisie (ruling class) and the Proletariat (common laborers).
The word literally means "Property Less"
He saw a great world-wide war between the rich and poor nations and classes witht the poor becoming the victors, and communistic Socialism enthroned forever, with everyone equal.
Held that character traits such as greed and selfishness are not intrinsic to human nature, but are instead responses to capitalistic stimuli.
Believed in “economic determinism”—that man had no freedom. Freedom was determined by wealth and social class.
Believed that capitalism led to exploitation of the worker and further societal alienation—that workers became waged slaves by selling their labor, resulting in de-humanization.
The founder of “Justice as Fairness” and was a professor of philosophy at Harvard
Been called the “most precise of all contemporary philosophers.”
His theory is called Justice as fairness and has to do with distribution of benefits and burdens
Wrote A Theory of Justice
About this deck
Size: 88 flashcards