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Conditions for t

-Sample size less than 15. Use t procedures if the data are too close to normal. If the data are clearly nonnormal or if outliers are present, don't use t.

-Same size at least 15. The t procedures can be used except in the presence of outliers or strong skewness.

-Large samples. The t procedures can be used for clearly skewed distributions when the same is large, rougly n>40

Conditions for z

-Data comes from an SRS from the pop. of interest

-Sampling distribution of x-bar is approx. normal.

-Individual observations are independent. N>10n

Mu *μ*

Population Mean

Two-Sided

Direction of the difference isn't specified. Ha:*μ=*0

One-sided

Null hypothesis says "no loss", alternative hypothesis says "there is a loss." Ho:μ=0 and Ha:μ>0. Interested only in deviations from the null hypothesis in one direction

σ(sigma)

Standard deviation of the population

σ_{X(sigma x-bar)}

Standard deviation of the sampling distribution

N

Population size

n

Sample size

z

The critical value for a confidence level c.

t

The critical value for a confidence level c. Number such that the area under the

t distribution for a given number of degrees of freedom falling between

c − t and c t is equal to c.

Toolbox for Confidence Interval

- Identify the pop. of interest & the parameter you want to draw conclusions about.
- Choose. the appropriate inference procedure. Verify the conditions for using the selected procedure.
- If the conditions are met, carry out the inference procedure. CI=estimate +-margin of error.
- Interpret your results in the contest of the problem.

Toolbox for Significance Test

- Identify the pop. of interest & the parameter you want to draw conclusions about. State null & alternative hypothesis in words & symbols.
- Choose the appropriate inference procedure. Verify the conditions for using the selected procedure.
- If the conditions are met, carry out the inference procedure. Calculate the test statistic. Find the P-value.
- Interpret your results in the context of the problem.

α (Alpha)

Type I error or Level of Significance.

P-value

The attained level of significance. P value is the smallest level of significance for which the observed sample statistic tells us to reject the null

hypothesis.

C

Confidence interval level of the mean

m

Margin of error x-bar +-z* σ/ n

Ha

alternative hypothesis- the effect we suspect is true, the alternative to "no effect" or "no change".

Ho

H-nought. Indicate null hypothesis.

x-bar

Sample mean

About this deck

Author: Tulante P.

Created: 2011-03-10

Updated: 2011-07-11

Size: 20 flashcards

Keywords: flash card flashcards digital flashcards note sharing notes textbook wiki college dorm class classroom exam homework test quiz university college education learn student teachers tutors share, study blue studyblue studyblu

Views: 273

Created: 2011-03-10

Updated: 2011-07-11

Size: 20 flashcards

Keywords: flash card flashcards digital flashcards note sharing notes textbook wiki college dorm class classroom exam homework test quiz university college education learn student teachers tutors share, study blue studyblue studyblu

Views: 273

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