1. body language
2. facial expression
3. gazing behavior
4. interpersonal distance
10 statements to chose from
Particpants either got email of statement or voicemail
Identification of sarcasm highest in voice- NOT email.
Why? Can tell inflection better in verbal vs nonverbal.
Confederates either rubbed their face or shook their foot
Counted how many times participant imitated
Results: confeds moves are replicated by participant
Assigned meaning to ambigous statements
Statements decoded by outside people and spouses
compared spouses' and observers'
is it decoding or encoding problem?
unhappy marriages= stranger more correct
self-disclosure- what you reveal about yourself and how it affects your social relationships (early and later)