day-to-day operations, rules, and policies of organizations and institutions discriminate against one sex
a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics that distinguish them from others.
a category of people who are perceived to belong to the same broad category loosely based on a number of visible shared physical characteristics such as skin color, hair, and facial features.
a category of people defined on the basis of their...
– cultural characteristics
– common cultural heritage
a subordinate group that occupies an inferior position of prestige, wealth and power.
negative attitudes/beliefs/feelings toward members of another group simply because they are a member of that group
an ideology/rationale used to justify prejudice and discrimination toward members of another race based on a belief that they are inherently inferiority
the unfavorable treatment of people, denying them opportunities or rights because of their group membership
discrimination that stems from prejudicial attitudes; behaviors with the intent to discriminate.
Organizational/institutional practices that...
1. create and/or
the formal separation of different categories of people.
Inequality is nearly universal because it has positive functions for society. Functionalists claim that inequality...
-assures the most important positions in society are filled by the most competent people.
-assures that people perform important positions competently.
-persuades people to undergo the years of training and hard work required to perform important jobs.
Rewards are often inconsistent with importance.
This view is inconsistent with inheritance.
There are many unfair barriers to competition.
household wealth based on the difference between assets and liabilities
household wealth after equity in homes and vehicles has been deducted provides
activities, behaviors, possessions and other
characteristics of how an individual spends their time and money.
the likelihood of realizing a certain quality of life, the probability of experiencing certain positive or negative outcomes in life, etc.
changing one’s social status and social ranking in the stratification system. Tells us how easy it is for a person to move up (or down) in a stratification system.
individuals change roles, but are no better off in social standing
increase (“upward mobility) or decrease (“downward mobility) in social standing as measured by social status, class, or power
change in social standing of children in relation to parents.
changes in social standing for one person during a lifetime
mobility resulting from changes in a society's occupational structure or stratification system rather than from individual achievement
Attitudes or behaviors violating the norms or standards of a group, society, or one's peers.
mechanisms used to ensure conformity to norms
internalized norms/values/beliefs of a society not only shape personality, but also constrain behavior
actions intended to punish a person engaging in deviant behavior
the exclusion of a person from the group
discrediting of a person as unacceptable because of undesired difference
Deviance is transmitted through socialization.
If an individual associates with...
significant others who hold deviant ideas
more people who hold deviant ideas than people who
embrace conventional ideas ...
the individual is more likely to become deviant.
social stability – those that label others as deviant
benefit as boundaries separating deviant from conventional behavior are reinforced
stigma – those that are labeled may become stigmatized, deviant label becomes master status
self-fulfilling prophecy - those that are labeled deviant may begin to see themselves as deviant and, subsequently, begin acting in accordance with the label imposed upon them
does not affect an individual's performance of roles or self-image
the person committing the act recognizes it as deviant
the deviant role becomes the organizing role for the person
Views deviance as relative and socially constructed
Identifies the key process by which actions become defined as deviant and people become labeled as
Deviance cannot be defined solely by labeling
Can’t explain primary deviance
Can’t explain causes of deviance
a statement connecting the data to a claim (e.g., an assumption or
credentials that may be used to add credibility to a claim if the
warrant is not sufficient
statements challenging a claim or arguments in
support of a claim
methods/standards of social organization no longer
based on tradition and belief or “magic”