The problem of univariance refers to the fact that
Which of the following is not a type of cone?
What kind of lighting conditions are depicted in the photograph?
According to the _______ theory, the color of any light is defined in our visual system by the relationships between a set of three numbers.
Which of the following colors is “illegal” for our visual systems?
Mixing paints to create new colors is an example of _______ color mixing, while shining lights to create new colors is an example of _______ color mixing.
When adding colors, blue and yellow create white under ______ color mixing but create green under ______ color mixing.
_______ are different mixtures of wavelengths that look identical
Using the red, green, and blue sliders on a color picking tool (such as the one depicted in the text), which of the following combinations makes yellow?
According to the opponent color theory, the perception of color is based on the output of _______ cones, each of them an opponency between _______ colors.
A unique blue is one that has no _______ or green tint.
A(n) _______ is a visual image seen after the stimulus has been removed. a. adapting stimulus
In the case of a negative afterimage, a yellow stimulus would produce a _______ afterimage.
_______ is the inability to perceive colors due to damage to the central nervous system.
A _______ is an individual who suffers from color blindness that is due to the absence of L‐cones.
A _______ is an individual who suffers from colorblindness that is due to the absence of S‐cones.
Which of the following describes an individual with no cones of any type?
______ is the idea that basic perceptual experiences may be determined in part by the cultural environment.
The tendency of a surface to appear the same color under a fairly wide range of illuminations is known as
Which of the following color pairs is furthest apart in wavelength?
Assumptions about _______ is not a physical constraint that makes constancy possible.
Which of the following is a related color?
What is the function relating the wavelength of light to the percentage of that wavelength that is reflected from the surface?
The philosophical position arguing that there is a real world to sense is known as
According to Euclidean geometry, parallel lines _______ as they extend through space.
______ is the difference between the two retinal images of the same scene. It is the basis of stereopsis.
Which of the following is not a monocular cue?
______ provide(s) precise quantitative information about distance in the third dimension.
______ is an important depth cue that is based on head movement.
When driving in a car, the fact that light posts by the side of the road move faster across your eye than distant buildings do is known as the visual cue of
Using the _______ depth cue you can tell far away something is based on how much detail is visible in the elements on the ground between you and the object.
The ability of the two eyes to turn inward in order to place the two images of a feature in the world on corresponding locations in the two retinal images is known as
The difference between crossed disparity and uncrossed disparity is that crossed disparity involves objects that are _______ the plane of fixation, while uncrossed disparity involves objects that are _______ the plane of fixation.
During free fusion, the eyes _______ in order to view a stereogram without a stereoscope.
Stereoblindness usually results from which of the following?
A random dot stereogram contains
The problem of determining which bit of the image in the left eye should be matched with which bit of image in the right eye is known as the
The theoretical significance of random dot stereograms is that they show that
Which of the following cannot be used to solve the correspondence problem?
______ is the difference in absolute disparities of two elements in the visual scene.
The _______ is based on the idea that prior knowledge could influence the estimates of the probability of a current event.
In _______, known information is combined in an optimal way using Bayes’ theorem to determine the best possible performance of someone using that information.
_______ is a measure of the smallest binocular disparity that can generate a sensation
______ refers to the presentation of two stimuli, one to each eye.
If normal binocular visual stimulation is not experienced during _______ then proper stereo vision might not develop.
______ disrupts binocular vision because one or both eyes are not aligned properly.
______ is the illusion that a stationary object is moving, and occurs after prolonged exposure to a moving object.
Imagine that you are at Niagara Falls, staring at the falling water for a few minutes. When you look away from the water at the crowd, the people seem to be floating upward. What phenomenon have you just experienced?
That a strong motion aftereffect is obtained when one eye is adapted and the other is tested suggests that
Interocular transfer is the transfer of
The problem faced by the motion detection system of knowing which feature in frame 2 corresponds to a particular feature in frame 1 is known as the _______ problem.
The impression of smooth motion that comes from the rapid alternation of objects appearing in nearby locations in rapid succession is
What is the “aperture problem”?
Which of the following brain regions is most specialized for motion processing?
In the Newsome and Pare paradigm, an observer’s task is to
A(n) _______ is the motion of an object that is defined by changes in contrast or texture, but not by luminance.
A(n) _______ is the motion of an object that is defined by changes in luminance.
The collection of light rays that interact with objects in the world in front of a viewer is
What does tau tell you?
The “focus of expansion” informs you of the direction
Evidence from labs such as Warren’s shows that humans can estimate their direction of heading solely on the basis of
The motion we interpret as configurations of animated dots as people moving around is called _______ motion.
During smooth pursuit, the eyes move
The _______ of the brain is important for initiating and guiding eye movements.
A(n) _______ eye movement rapidly changes fixation from one object or location to another.
An area of the visual system that receives one copy of the order issued by the motor system when the eyes move is called
The purpose of the comparator is to _______ eye movements.
When one makes a saccadic eye movement, there is a(n) _______ sensitivity known as saccadic suppression.
Which of the following is not a type of eye movement?
What type of eye movements do we make while reading?
To look at the tip of your nose, what kind of eye movement would you make?
______ is a rare neuropsychological disorder in which the affected individual has no perception of motion.
Attention is generally thought of as consisting of
When measuring reaction time (RT), we measure the
SOA refers to
In a probe detection experiment an invalid cue is a
According to the _______ theory, attention moves from point to point.
In visual search studies, a _______ is any stimulus other than the target.
In a typical visual search experiment, the target would be present in _______% of the trials and absent in _______% of the trials.
The number of items in the display in a visual search experiment is referred to as the
In a _______ task, the target is defined by the presence of a single feature, or attribute, such as a salient color or orientation.
An “efficient” search is one in which the slope of the function relating _______ time to set size is about 0 ms/item.
One kind of inefficient search is a _______ search.
According to the feature integration theory,
Seeing a blue cup when the cupboard contains blue mugs and non-blue cups, but no blue cups is referred to as (a)n
The _______ is the difficulty in perceiving and responding to the second of two target stimuli amid a rapid stream of stimuli if the observer has responded to the first target stimulus within 200 to 500 ms before the second stimulus is presented.
Which of the following is an experimental procedure in which stimuli appear in a stream in one location at a quick rate?
The _______ is the brain area that responds preferentially to faces in fMRI studies.
The three ways that the responses of a cell could be changed by attention are enhancement, sharper tuning, and
During response enhancement, a neuron responding to an attended stimulus might give a _______ response.
Patients with _______ damage have problems directing attention to objects and places on their left.
The “line cancellation test” is used to assess
Which of the following is not a symptom of Balint syndrome?
Which of the following is the inability to perceive more than one object at once?
Change blindness is a failure to
Covert attentional shifts involve a(n)
What is the term for a description of the structure of a scene without reference to the identity of specific objects in the scene?
Which of the following terms describes the perception of the position and movement of our limbs in space?
Proprioception is perception mediated by
Touch receptors can be found in the epidermis and
Which of the following is not a type of mechanoreceptor?
The _______ describes the system that transmits pain and incorporates modulating signals from the brain.
______ are sensory receptors that signal information about changes in skin temperature.
Nociceptors transmit information about
The A-delta and C fibers are types of
The _______ pathway is the route from the spinal cord to the brain that carries most of the information about skin temperature and pain.
The _______ pathway is the route from the spinal cord to the brain that carries signals from skin, muscles, tendons, and joints.
The _______ is a maplike representation of where regions of the body are processed in the brain.
Which of the following body parts has the largest representation in the somatosensory map?
______ means mapped in correspondence to the skin.
The perceived sensation from a physically amputated limb of the body is known as
The story of soldiers in battle who did not feel painful wounds until the stress was over describes a damping of pain sensations known as
______ are chemicals released by the body that block the release or uptake of neurotransmitters necessary to transmit pain sensations to the brain.
Which of the following is the correct ordering of body parts, from the largest two- point threshold to the smallest?
______ perception is knowledge of the world that is derived from sensory receptors in skin, muscles, tendons, and joints, and usually involves active exploration.
Exploratory procedures are used to
______ is a method of communication that uses touch sensations only.
______ is the inability to identify objects by touch.
Frame of reference is used to
______ describes the center of a reference frame.
The _______ helps convey speech to the blind and deaf.
_____ refers to our mental representation of our bodies in space.
Which of the following refers to a specific aromatic chemical?
Which of the following is a general smell sensation of a particular quantity that might include many aromatic chemicals?
The olfactory epithelium contains each of the following cells except
The _______ is a narrow space at the back of the nose in which air flows and is where the main olfactory epithelium is located.
The cilia are the
Which of the following structures is sometimes called the “retina of the nose”?
The _______ is a bony structure riddled with tiny holes, at the level of the eyebrows, which separates the nose from the brain.
______ is the total inability to smell, most often resulting from sinus illness or head trauma.
Each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) converges onto two
The _______ is the blueberry-sized extension of the brain, just above the nose, where olfactory information is first processed.
The brain region responsible for processing smell is known as the
The limbic system is a group of neural structures that is involved in many aspects of
Sometimes odorants can stimulate the somatosensory system through polymodal nociceptors. These sensations are mediated by the
The shape-pattern theory of olfaction is based on the idea that
Specific anosmia and the study of stereoisomers provide evidence against the _______ theory of olfactory perception.
The vibration theory of olfaction contends that
The processing of components in an odorant mixture is completed by using
Contrary to vision and audition, odor _______ is not possible in olfaction.
Over the course of several weeks, the percentage of correct recognitions of an odor
The _______ phenomenon is the inability to name an odorant, even though it is very familiar.
One explanation for why our sense of smell and language are so disconnected is that
_____ is the psychological process by which, after long-term exposure to an odorant, one is no longer able to detect that odorant or has very diminished detection ability.
Odor hedonics is
A(n) _______ is often responsible for our disliking of a particular food after gastric illness.
The _______ is the part of the brain responsible for processing olfaction and for assigning affective value to stimuli.
______ are chemicals emitted by one member of a species that triggers a psychological or behavioral response in another member of the same species.
What is the effect that is shown when women live in close proximity to one another and over time start to have menstrual cycles that coincide?
Which of the following is a chemical sensing organ at the base of the nasal cavity with a curved tubular shape?
Which of the following is a neural structure located behind the main olfactory bulb?