Psychic dependence- a feeling of satisfaction and psychic drive that require periodic or continuous administration of drug to produce pleasure or avoid discomfort--* NOT the same thing classic/ physical addiction
Avoidance of withdrawal- the mechanism of physical dependence causes continued use
The motive to seek pleasure- the mechanism of psychological dependence
· Percodan and Oxycontin
· cocaine, amphetamine, heroine – people who take them without knowing it, like the effects right away. …they don’t have to learn to appreciate the feeling (like marijuana, alcohol or LSD…or fine art, smoking, caviar, etc.)
· the study of drug effects, how substances affect living tissue.
· The pharmacologist studies matters such as the administration, absorption, and distribution of drugs in the body, specifically in certain organs and sites in the body.
· the result of a chemical reaction between a given laboratory substance and the physical make-up of a given organism.
· This notion is abstract: “ideal processes” – pharmacologists control, assume, or post factors such as:
· represents what happens when real substances are ingested by real people under real-life circumstances.
o paranoia, disorientation, respiratory failure.
· e.g., LSD v. cocaine
· Heroin today v. 1960s
o e.g., Cocaine may be “cut” with:
§ Manitol (laxative)
§ Sorbitol (sugar substitute)
§ Inositol (B complex vitamin)
§ Procaine (an analgesic)
o In order to have a psychoactive effect, or mind-altering effect, drugs must get into and act on the central nervous system (CNS), that is, the brain and the spinal column. To do this drugs must enter the blood stream and cross the blood-brain barrier.
§ extremely efficient and rapid means of getting a drug into the body. Since lung tissue is densely surrounded by capillaries, drugs move very swiftly from the lungs to the capillaries, that is into the bloodstream, and from there into the brain
§ For a drug taken orally to have an effect, it must pass through the stomach and be absorbed from there, or even further down, through the small intestine, into the bloodstream.
o Absorption through the skin:
§ Dermal patch (Ortho-evra)
§ Rectal suppository
§ Placed directly on mucus membranes (the eye, the nasal passages (cocaine) the gums, the inside of the mouth – like nitroglycerine)
§ Implantation – time release device placed under the skin or in some portion of the body (radiation seeds, Norplants)
o Personal characteristics of the user - the psychic, mental, and emotional state of the person taking a given drug.
o It includes:
§ mood, and so on.
· their effects are more or less the same, except greater.
o One aspirin and one Tylenol produce pretty much the same effects as comparable doses of two aspirin or two Tylenol taken separately. (1+1=2)
Synergistic effects (multiplier effect)
o Two drugs have similar actions, but the effect of their joint action is more than cumulative.
o i.e., alcohol and sedatives (barbiturates), or. (1+1=3)
· two wars between China and Western countries. The first was between Great Britain and China.
· Amendment XVIII (18th)
o Adopted in 1919, in effect in 1920
· Brought about complete national prohibition on the sale of alcohol
· At first; “moderation” then… “total abstinence”
· Prohibition failed because it was the powerful, prestigious middle class that abandoned abstinence as a legitimate, respectable way of life.
· Upper class won over the urban, working class.
Schedules are based on medical use and abuse potential
· presumably have a “lesser” abuse potential and they do have medical utility.
o The may lead to low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Prescriptions may be filled five times in six months, copies are not required, and the drugs do not have to be stored in a vault.
o Includes slow acting barbiturates, some non-narcotic painkillers, and some narcotic solutions and mixtures. …and ketamine.
· drugs are those whose abuse potential is considered extremely low; procedures are similar to those for Schedule III drugs.
o Representative drugs include most of the tranquilizers.
· New Laws Create Crime and Criminals
Laissez faire policies
· The philosophy of exerting as little governmental control and regulation as possible
· RAVE Act and the ”crack house” statute
· the objective is to minimize the medical, psychological, and social costs associated with drug-taking behavior.
· 5 grams of crack cocaine gets 5 years in federal prison
· To get the same penalty, a person must be arrested with 500 grams of powder cocaine. (Tends to be used by whites)
· 10 or more grams of material containing crack, whatever its purity, gets 10 years
· Those negatively affected aren’t participating
· Signed by President Obama on August 3, 2010
· The 100 to 1 sentencing ratio has been reduced to 18 to 1
· Twenty-eight grams of crack cocaine will now trigger a five-year prison sentence and 280 grams of crack will trigger a ten-year sentence
· The five-year mandatory minimum for simple possession of crack cocaine has also been eliminated
The Fair Sentencing Act does not appear to apply retroactively.