* A Receptor: Monitors a controlled condition, change in condition = stimulus change.
* Control Center: Determines next action
* Effector: Recieves directions from CC and produces a response that changes the controlled condition.
O (oxygen), C (carbon), H (hydrogen), N (nitrogen), S, P (phosphate), Ca (calcium), K (potassium), Na (sodium), Cl
What is a covalent bond?
Solutions: Homoegenous- gases, liquids or solids. Particles are tiny, don't settle or scatter light
Ex: Mineral water
Heterogenous - Don't settle, but do scatter light.
Heterogenous - Large solutes that settle.
Ex: Sand, blood.
1) Has a lot of heat absorption to change temperature
2) Takes heat absorption to change states
3) Polar Solvent - A lot of chemicals can be dissolved
4) Reactive - Is involved in chemical reactions
*contain carbon* Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
Monomers join to make polymers[chain like molecules made of similiar/repeating units (monomer)] by dehydration synthesis
Define protein denaturation
1-2% of cell mass. Used for energy and structural support.
Monomers: 1 sugar: Glucose+fructose
Polymers: + sugars: Chains of monosaccharides.
Golbular proteins act as biological catalytst [regulate/accelerate rate of biochemical reactions]
"Traffic cops" keep metabolic pathways open.
Store genetic info, CHNO+P
Monomer unit: Nucleotides: 5 carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, phosphate group.
Single strand, AUGC, ribose
DNA -> RNA -> translating to make proteins.
1) Basic structure of all living things
2) Activity of organisms depends on individual/group activities of cells
3) Structure/function are complementary
4) Continuity of life from each generation has a cellular basis
1) Simple diffusion: nonpolar/lipid soluble subs diffuse directly
2) Faciliated Diffusion: Sugars, AA transported passively, not through lipid bilayer. Binds to protein carrier/moves through water protein.
3) Ions and proteins pass through aqueous channels.
4) Osmosis: Diffusion of solvent passes through lipid bilayer.
Is a measure of a solutions ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water concentration.
Isotonic: Happy, normal
Hypotonic: Solution is dilute, plumps rapidly as water rushes in, can burst (lysis)
Hypertonic: Loses water, shrinks, crenation
Segment of DNA that carries information for creating one polypeptide chain.
A,T,G,C = letters that make up words
Triplets = Words
Sequence = Sentence
** Every cell has same genes but different proteins.
1) mRNA is synthesized in nucleus, leaves nucleus and attaches to a ribosome.
2) Translation begins as incoming tRNA recognizes complementary codon at a site on ribosome. Hbonds to codon by anitcodon
3) Ribosome moves along mRNA, each codon is read, new AA is added to protein chain, tRNA in A site is translocated to Psite.
4) AA is released from Psite tRNA is attached to Esite/released from cytoplasm. Polypeptide is released when STOP is read.