When we compare what people say about their drug use in surveys with the results of drug tests, what do we find?
The latter figures are significantly higher than the former
The ADAM sample is drawn from what counties?
Counties where most of the nation’s largest cities are
The sample for ADAM includes persons who have been arrested for what types of crimes?
Violent crimes, property crimes, drug crimes, DWI, and domestic violence crimes
ADAM arrestees are asked if they are willing to do what?
Be interviewed and supply urine samples
In 2003, what was the median percentage testing positive for one or more drugs?
What does the text say regarding the likelihood of criminal offenders using psychoactive drugs in comparison to no offenders?
Criminal offenders are extremely more likely to use psychoactive drugs, hugely more likely than nonoffenders
What are the two premier drugs that arrestees have taken recently?
Marijuana and cocaine
DAWN collects information on what two crucial drug abuse events?
Emergency department episodes and medical examiner reports
As age rises, the risk of dying of drug-related causes does what?
Rises as well
What are the three drugs that appear consistently in both ED and ME figures?
Cocaine, heroin, alcohol
The MTF survey is conducted where, and how is it administered?
In classroom/self-administered questionnaires
The MTF survey asks about what four levels of use?
1. Lifetime prevalence (whether the drug was used in the lifetime)
2. Annual prevalence (use in the last year)
3. 30-day prevalence (use in the last month)
4. Daily use (use on 20 or more of the last 30 days)
What else are respondents asked about in this survey?
Perceived risk, their disapproval of drug use, and perceived availability of specific drugs
What are two obvious limitations to the MTF survey?
Absentees from school and dropouts
The NSDUH is a survey of Americans of what ages?
12-17, 18-25, and 26+
In 2005, what was the lifetime prevalence for American adults for marijuana/hashish, cocaine, and Ecstasy?
66.6% - cigarettes
What is the prevalence rate?
The number and percentage of people in the population who use a given drug during a designated period
What three drugs in order have the highest past-month to lifetime continuance rates?
Alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana
What three drugs in order have the highest past-month to past-year continuance rates?
Cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana
For at least three decades the pattern of drug use and age has been what?
Drug use has been and remains low among youths, extremely high with young adults, lower in the older adult years, and lower still after 35.
After age 35-drug use falls to a level only _____ of what it was during the peak years.
Quarter to a fifth
Unlike illicit drug use, alcohol consumption changes how?
Almost flat between its peak and later middle age and does not decline until late 50s and again in the 60s
During colonial times, what can be said of drinking?
Constituted a central fact of life, people drank often and abundantly
With what did the Continental Army supply its troops?
Daily ration of four ounces of rum or whiskey
When was the high point in the nation’s alcohol consumption and what caused the decline?
1830/decline caused by the impact of the temperance movement
What do epidemiologists regard as a very reliable measure of the percentage of heavy drinkers in the population?
When did alcohol consumption reach a post-Prohibition peak?
Between late 1970s and early 1980s
Was per-capita alcohol consumption greater in 1790 or 1990?
2% for cocaine, 3% for hallucinogens
In what decade was the recreational use of illicit drugs most widespread?
When was the high point in recreational drug use in the US?
During the course of the 1970s, attitudes toward illicit drug use as measured by what three items became increasingly tolerant?
Harmfulness, degree of disapproval, and support for legislation
For all drugs, for all age categories, and for all categories of use, the consumption of illicit drugs declined between _____ and _____.
1979 and 1991`
The biggest increases in drug use after the early 1990s took place among what group?
In the brief span of just five years (1991-1996) recent or current illicit drug use more than _____ among children in what grades?
Doubled/8th and 10th graders
Most of this increase was associated with what drug?
When did the drug use, especially marijuana, that began to skyrocket during the early to mid-1990s fizzle out?
Late 1990s and early 2000s
What drugs are in the category of chemically and pharmacologically miscellaneous substances whose use boomed late in the 20th century but declined early in the 21st?
Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine
What are three commonly believed myths about illicit drug trafficking?
1. It is the biggest economic enterprise on earth
2. It is highly centralized with a “boss of all bosses” in the United States who controls the entire enterprise
3. Illicit drugs represent a drain on or a clear-cut unambiguous cost to the nation’s economy
According to Abt estimates Americans spent home much on cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana, and all other illicit drugs in 2000?
Just under $65 billion
In which of the following years was the total expenditure on illicit drugs the greatest (in 2000 dollars)—1988, 1992, 1996, or 2000?
Did the average retail price for heroin and cocaine increase or decrease from 1981 to 2000?
Devastate economies of a large number of countries
How does the cocaine trade in Colombia compare to the coffee business, and how does the marijuana crop in the United States compare to the corn crop?
Cocaine is as profitable as coffee/marijuana is more profitable than corn
Why is no legal agricultural product viable in many regions of the world where drugs are grown?
Cannot be grown under local conditions or it cannot reach a market soon enough to make enterprise profitable
What groups largely move Colombian heroin from the wholesale to the retail levels on the East Coast and in the western United States respectively?
What country probably contributes as much as 90 percent of the cocaine that is consumed in the United States?
How much of the marijuana that is consumed in the United States is grown domestically?
More than half
What are the four leading outdoor growing states?
California, Hawaii, Kentucky, Tennessee
What countries are the principal sources for MDMA?
Belgium and Netherlands
Where are most LSD labs located?
California and Pacific Northwest
If legal how much would the drugs that are currently illicit cost?
It increased the price of illicit substances
The informal economy is capable of providing pay to what types of workers?
Workers who would be unacceptable in the formal economy
Why are the police more likely to apprehend low-level street dealers and couriers than higher-level dealers?
In part because they are so much more numerous, and in part because their illicit activities are more visible.
In what ways do middle-class dealers differ from inner-city dealers?
The very real and, for Blacks, palpable fact that, in the inner city, they are subject to intense and unequal police scrutiny and, all too often, interrogation.
From 1980 to 2004 the total number of adult drug arrests _____.
Over this same time period the percentage of all prisoners in federal penitentiaries who were convicted of drug offenses increased from _____% to _____%, and the percentage of prisoners incarcerated in state penal institutions went from _____ to _____%.
20% to 54%; 6% to 22%
In 1980 our total rate of incarceration (prisons and jails) was _____ and by 2004 this figure was _____.
139 per 100,000/486 per 100,000
What three factors account for the increases in the prison population in the face of a declining crime rate?
1. Parole is being denied more often than in the past,
2. Parole is more often revoked than it was in the past,
3. Drug arrests more likely to result in incarceration and the increases greater than it has been for property and violent offenses
Public opinion polls find that roughly what percent of all Americans believe that the possession and sale of hard drugs and marijuana should be illegal, respectively?
What bill created the Asset Forfeiture Fund and what did this bill legitimate?
The 1988 Anti-Drug Abuse Bill, it legitimated seizing assets earned by criminal conspiracies
What are the stated goals of drug asset forfeiture?
1. Take drugs off the street,
2. Disrupt or terminate the sale of illegal drugs,
3.Reduce the use/abuse of illegal drugs,
4. Reduce the social problems that illegal drug abuse causes.
Miller and Selva argue that the efforts of the police are now much more directed toward what than what?
More directed toward “asset hunting” than toward taking drugs off the street and reducing drug abuse and its problems
Is alcohol or cigarettes less sensitive to price?
Cigarettes are most compulsively consumed of these products, and is the least sensitive to price
Is demand for illicit drugs sensitive to price?
Yes, not so much for heroin but definitely for marijuana and cocaine
The conclusions of the studies of drug courts suggest that well-run drug court programs are what?
Consistently effective in reducing recidivism
Drug court programs usually work only if what four things are associated with them?
Frequent urine tests
routine appearances before the judge
active enrollee treatment participation
threat of sanctions
What are the estimated per year costs of drug courts versus incarceration?
$1,800-$4,400 versus $20,000-$30,000
What proportion of all enrollees in treatment programs were referred by the criminal justice system?
The author argues that it is crucial to measure drug treatment effectiveness in what way?
By REDUCTIONS in use, not total abstention
What are the four principal types of drug treatment programs?
outpatient (drug-free programs)
self-help peer groups
How do the withdrawal symptoms from methadone compare with those of heroin?
They would undergo painful abstinence symptoms just as they would have done with heroin, methadone might even be more prolonged and painful than with heroin
What type of drug treatment program was not included in TOPS?
Self-help peer groups (such as NA/AA)
What did TOPS find for all three programs with regard to the total volume of illegal drug use?
Your text states that society gets back roughly how much money for each dollar spent on drug treatment programs?
Society gets back $3 or $4 dollars in benefits for every dollar spent