well or overconditioned dairy cows afterparturition, especially with metritis,retained membranes, mastitis, DA or parturient paresis.
Negative energy balance during the peripartum period is associated with mobilization of fat to the liver. Liver enzymes are sometimes but not always elevated, free fatty acids (FFAs) may be increased.
Liver biopsy is usually needed for diagnosis.
Toxemia usually occurs in thelast few weeks of gestation due to negative energy balance associated withrapid fetal growth and insufficient caloric intake.
Usually characterized byketonuria/ketonemia with acidosis (ketones act as acids in the body). FFAlevels are very high.