Pillow basalts form when basalt is?
Erupted into water.
The effusive eruptions on Iceland…
Only answers a&b are correct; are composed of basaltic composition lava; largely destroy structures without fatalities.
If a horizontal layer of volcanic tephra lies between two horizontal sedimentary strata, the principle by which the relative ages of each of these layers could be determined is…
Besides frost wedging, which of the following are examples of mechanical engineering?
Only answers a & b are correct; bioturbation and spalling of boulders from range fires.
Rivers erosion tends to be greatest ______ fold structure.
The zig zag pattern of rock units than can be observed while flying over Pennsylvania is due to?
Where is isostatic recovery from ice loading still occurring today in North America?
Sub polar latitudes where temperatures fluctuate around the freezing temperature during certain seasons.
Rounding occurs because the edges and corners of the rock surface offer more points of attack to chemical weathering processes than its planar surface.
Erosion of plunging anticline and syncline
Why does calcium carbonate not accumulate in Puget Lowland soils?
All of the above; the soils are too young; the climate is too moist and calcium and bicarbonate ions remain in solution; the soils are not derived from sediment with calcium bearing minerals.
Only answers a&b are correct; in residual bedrock; in unconsolidated sediment.
Why did the depth of drilling increase on the limestone boulders deposited on the three glacial moraines?
The older moraine was older and subjected to longer weathering.
What test would conclusively tell you that marble and limestone are both composed from the mineral calcite?
Reaction with HCL acid.
Silica is less soluble (dissolvable) in cold water
Oolites form from
A tabular intrusive body that is oriented parallel to the existing sedimentary area
Is a sill.
-Rivers. (Not 100% sure, star was next to answer)
What diagnostic property would you use to determine that the cementing agent within sandstone is Fe2O3?
Its reddish color.
*That the rock unit was overturned (upside down)=base
Are graded to the elevation of the lake or sea level.
Which of the geologic units is the oldest?
Only answers b&c are correct; occurred prior to 12,000 years ago; occurred after 15,000 years ago.
According to the principle of inclusions the closest constraining age for the formation of a conglomerate rock ______
-Answers a & d are correct; you might observe a buried soil or weathering zone between the two units; you might observe fossil assemblages that are not temporally compatible between the two rock units.
Where is radiocarbon first produced on earth?
In the atmosphere
How did geologists determine the exact day of offset on the Cascadia subduction zone in 1700 AD?
They had accurate tsunami logs from Japan that recorded the event.
Which of the following transport agents generally results in oscillation?
According to the principle of cross-cutting relationships, if a fault is found cutting across sedimentary strata, the reasonable conclusion would be that:
The fault is younger than the strata
All of the above; the horizon gets thicker; the profile gets redder; clay content with the soil profile increases
Most of the N found in organic matter is natural occurring and not the result of C decay.
If you dated a volcanic rock that unknowingly lost argon through diffusion the resulting potassium-argon age…
Would appear younger than the true age of the volcanic rock.
According to the principle of inclusions the age of a xenolith found within an intrusive (plutonic) igneous rock (blank)
A minimum (blank) seismic stations are necessary to determine the focus of an earthquake.
If an earthquake occurs, the (blank) waves are the last to arrive at a seismic station.
In order to relieve stress buildup that would cause a magnitude 7 earthquake, approximately how many magnitude 5 earthquakes would have to occur?
Figure a shows a ….fault.
What kind of faults bound mountains and valleys of the Basin and Range provinces in Utah and Nevada?
Overturned folds may evolve into (blank).
13. The strike-slip fault shown below is…
-Right/Left lateral (top arrow right or left)
In order to relieve stress buildup that would cause a magnitude 6 earthquake, approximately how many magnitude 5 earthquakes would have to occur?
What type of faulting would you expect to dominate the Canadian Rockies or Appalachian Mountains?
What factors influence earthquake intensity?
Only answers b&d are correct; along subduction zones where vertical offset has occurred on the ocean floor; submarine landslides due to seismic events.
Only answers a&b are correct; the upthrown side of the fault was uplifted ~27 feet; a tsunami wave was generated in the Puget Sound.
Graded beds are shown in the stratigrphic section below. In which direction does the section get younger?
As the land is tectonically uplifted from below sea level`
-Is proportional to.
-Their waters will eventually drain south through the Mississippi River system.
High confining pressure is conducive to (blank) deformation in rock.
Why is quartz the most common mineral found in beach sand around Puget Sound?
Quartz is lighter than all other minerals can be washed further by waves
-Olivine is not the most dominant mineral in beach sands.
-From constant of pre-existing country rock with an igneous pluton.
Which metamorphic rock has been subjected to contact metamorphism (not foliated)?