frigid tundras and humid cold
occurred before the Industrial Revolution
:developments in land ownership and agriculture methods
Treaty of Westphalia in 1648
spirit of nationalism keeps the realm divided
WWI, WWII, Cold War, Berlin Wall
btwn Catholics and Protestants
and Muslims and Christians
formation of a multinational union involving a large number of states in the European Union (EU).
strasbourg, France is at the seat of this European Parliament.
27/40 states are members
Soviet "Iron Curtain" cemented the idea of east versus west Europe.
group 1: Slovenia, Hungary, Slovakia, poland
group 2: greece, cyprus, romania, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania
group 3: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania
group 4: Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus
is the cultural and geographic center of the northern hemisphere.
has most global culture rooted there.
site of two world wars.
divided into West and East after WWII.
Berlin Wall 1989
oldest state in region.
Paris- only prominent city despite not being near major raw materials to grow
Paris is not on the coast for trade,
Northern French agriculture is most productive in Europe.
France has one of the world's most productive economies and most rich cultures.
growing in land size by wrestling land from the sea.
GDP highly dominated by services, finance, and trade.
cultural divide between Flemish speaking 58% and French speaking 31%.
Brussels is the headquarters for the EU
Ministate with a territory of only 2600 square Km.
population 0.5 million.
$75,395 per-capita income. (US is $64,400)
mountain streams used for hydroelectric power
not in the EU
historical geography more reminiscent of eastern europe.
Vienna- largest city
in the EU, reluctantly
smallest nation in europe (61 sq. Km, 35,000 people)
highest global GDP
leaders in technology
occupies Britain and the northeast corner of Ireland
Set most of Ireland free in 1921, except NE corner to protect the protestants
major component of the UK
hoping for sovereignity
Lake Loch Ness
greatest economic growth in EU at turn of the century.
fought to be free of the British.
terrorist group: Irish Republican Army
most populous, economically advanced.
20 internal regions.
export: appliances, instruments, automobiles, raw materials
dictatorship -> democracy
joined EU in 1986
catalonia exports most
poor -> benefitted from entering EU
exports textiles, wines, corks, and fish
population clustered on coasts
largest of Nordic nations
industry typically raw materials
making automobiles, electronics, and glassware
huge fishing industry
oil and natural gas transformed the economy
Helsinki, Tampere, Turku
2nd largest population 5.5 million
bridge-tunnel link to southern sweden enhances trade
volcanic glacier studded island
free-trade zone in Muuga Harbor facilitates commerce with Russia
capital: bratislava corrupt and inefficient
irredentism: support by gov't of ethnic cohorts in neighboring/distant nations
first rep. from Yugoslavia to be invited to join EU
conflicts with surrounding nations
Athens- 1/3 of population
independence in 1974
"green line" seperates Greeks and Turks
weak economy, low income, poverty
Bucharest, decaying capital
oil fields are depleted
centered around port-capital, Riga
largest and most important of eastern periphery
discrimination of Serbian minority
fell victim to conflict btwn the Serbs, the Croats, and the Bosniaks
ethnic cleansing in early 90s
NATO too control in 1999
gained independence in 2008
largest by area
poorest of european nation.
illegal arms and smuggling
capital Minsk built by russians as an industrial center