What is the "Great Chain of Being"?
The great chain of being is a social ranking based on birth status and how “close you are to god. Goes god, priests / clergy, nobles and then peasants, all about the privileges and obligations you have in your standing
What are the obligations and privileges of priest/clergy
own large lands with serfs, make laws, own courts, don’t pay taxes, entrusted with spiritual wellbeing, give money to king, no inheriting or passing down
allowed to petition to king if feeling like treatment is unjust, use commons, must pay taxes, do long term military service, work for lords, pay fees to the lords
set prices and quality and supply of goods, lots of rules and taxes
You can’t move up socially because it is where you are born and your birth = how close you are to god
Feudal and militant, unstable, decentralized, and lots of problems, feudal state means war lords own chuncks of land and have soldiers that are loyal to them, local army = political power, Knights = military power
A person who swears an allegiance to a lord for protection gives the lord power because they can use the vassal as they choose
The serfs and peasants by working the land, no currency if you own land you are wealthy pay in service and food = “rent”
The land owners because they make the rules and the money always have food etc
No need, it’s a subsistence time period, you need what you need to survive, you have incentive to work with others in case of drought, natural disasters etc. so everyone survives
How does the Roman Catholic church provide unity in Europe?
As the church got more and more political the less spiritual it got and the more corrupt it got, selling indulgences etc. there was no real political community it was all in the church
What were the characteristics of Luther’s church and how did they differ from the Catholic Church?
He was helped by german princes, specifically the elector of Saxony (controlled the hapsburg dynasty, 40 ish % of Europe) who wanted his style of religion
What unintended consequences did the Reformation have for European politics, secular political power and the “middling orders”?
Permanent division of Christianity and therefore Europe, Church makes Counter reformation, pope didn’t really want to because it undermined his authority, ended up ending pluralism but everything else was the same, it revives Catholicism,