general public - a highly tentative statement, indicating disagreement among individuals.
scientific perspective - a hypothesis or group of related hypotheses that have survived being tested a great many times in a number of different ways. (Leads to conflicting implications of evolution as "just another theory"
concluded that the sun was the center of the solar system. This upset the church.
1633 - said the sun was center of the solar system, and church threw him in prison.
1992 - catholic church admits error
not profuce testable predictions. (cannot lead to scientific progress).
Important questions can be addressed through evolutionary theory.
taxonomy. reflected progression of creation. goal of biologist was to fill in. Linnaeus "for the greater glory of God".
generated a search for "missing links"
even though he took a beatign from prominent scientists of his time. (b/c no intermediates, internalr force/strive for perfection is questionable, no new species have been observed to evolve)...
he was the first to divide animal life into the vertebrate and invertebrate categories. cleared way for Darwin
reproductive ability + limited resources
struggle for existence + heritable variation
natural secection + changing environments
evolution (differences in species due to adaptation)
1. age of Earth - 5,000 to 100,000,000. no time to create diversity.
2. mode of inheritance - spermists, blending inheritance (offspring inherit a mix of traits from both parents, like paint). Darwin's answer = Pangenesis (small atomic particles from parents incorporated into gamets and passed.
3. variability - macro vs micromutation and evolution.
two schools of thought...
1. mutations of large effect created diversity.
2. selection on mutations of small effect (Darwin's idea).
(Darwinian view) - evolution by transmutation PLUS...
application of Mendel's laws, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (persistence of alleles) and analysis of effects of selection (natural selection).
the observed trait of an individual - affected by environment as well as genotype.
genotype ---> phenotype
both alleles are the same. "true breeding"
a haploid genotype (one allele).
sex linked. males are haploid and females are diploid.
no change in amino acid. makes the same amino acid
will have the least impact on phenotype
causes a premature stop
can have the greatest imnpact on phenotype.
insertion of bases, causes a shift. can change amino acids.
may have the greatest impact on phenotype. depends on how many bp are inserted.
VP = VG + VE
VP = phenotipic variance
VG = genetic variance (differenct alleles and genotype)
VE = environmental variance
there is an infinite population
AB, ab ---> aB, Ab
AB, ab ---> AB, ab
heterozygote has the greatest fitness. Heterozygote advantage
w11 < w12 > w22
heterozygote has the lowest fitness. heterozygote disadvantage.
w11 > w12 < w22
have a "goal"
attempt to achieve "harmony"
key points - mutation-selection balance
increase selection coefficient causes decrease in equilibrium frequency
increase mutation rate cases increase in equilibrium frequencey
even a small amount of codominance causes decrease in equilibrium frequencey (reduced shielding of deleterious allele)
c. random mating *
a. allele dominance
c. phenotype *
d. RNA transcription
what type of mutation will result in premature termination of protein synthesis?
c. nonsense *
a. chng p = O
b. p = 0
c. q = 0
d. chng p = 1 * (a change!)
a. can vary among genotypes
b. is based exclusively on an individuals ability to survive *
c. generates greater adaptation
d. is a function of allelic fitness
a. initial allele frequencies
b. relative fitness of each genotype
c. both of the above
d. non of the above