Intense volcanic activity, lightning, and UV radiation
Simple metabolism Simple homeostasis
Homeostasis and self-replication
:Prokaryotes lived alone on Earth for 1.5 billion
:Virtually all metabolic pathways evolved within
The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a
community of prokaryotes
Documents the main events in the history of life. Chronicles Macroevolution
Over the last 600 million years, five mass
extinctions have occurred in which 50% or more
of the Earth’s species went extinct
65 million years ago
– All dinosaurs went extinct
– cause was a large asteroid
– 96% of shallow water marine species died.
Extreme vulcanism in Siberia released CO2, warmed
global climate, slowed mixing of ocean water,
Changes in genes that alter the timing, rate, and
spatial pattern of growth alter the adult form of an
Changes in these genes have led to the huge
diversity in body forms!
retaining juvenile traits into adulthood
is the evolutionary history of a species
or group of species
Analogous similarities result fromconvergent
evolutionin similar environments
Woese: 3 Domain Classification 1) Bacteria. 2) Archaea. 3) Eukarya
Linnaeus: 5 Kingdom Classification 1) Monera. 2) Protista. 3) Fungi. 4) Plantae. 5) Animalia.
Family, order, class, phylum, kingdom, and domain
1. Gene transfer between a mitochondrial ancestor and
the ancestor of eukaryotes,
2. Gene transfer between a chloroplast ancestor and
the ancestor of green plants.