–carry air to underground parts through “aerenchyma”
example:black mangrove tree, cypress knees
Anchor roots on host stems
–Help to pull bulb underground
example: corms, water hyacinth,
•“Typically” above-ground portion of plant
•Tend to grow away from pull of gravity
example: morning glory-covers fence or trellis, Ponderosa pijne grows toward the sunlight
Horizontal above-ground stems growing along surface, making new plants
ex: strawberries, grass
Characterized by large biodiversity in plants, animals, and insects and LOTS of manual labor, low chemical input, lots of recycling of matter
Characterized by low biodiversity (monocultures), high input of fertilizers, fuels, pesticides, irrigation, low requirement for human power.
1)Excess nutrients in water cause algae to grow
2)Algae die and decay through bacterial action
3)Bacterial population explodes consuming oxygen
4)Fish and other creatures in water die due to lack of oxygen
•1) Plant monocultures of highly bred crops
•2) Use lots of fertilizer, pesticides and water
•3) Do multiple cropping per year if possible
•4) Develop fast-growing dwarf crops, especially in tropical/subtropical developing countries
•Low till and no till farming
•Improved irrigation practices
•Use of GMO crops – Argument for GMO crops is debatable
(More on GMO crops later)
•Use of GPS to guide machinery in the field
organisms, a subset of GMOs, are organisms which have inserted DNA that originated in a different species.
Some GMOs contain no DNA from other species and are therefore not transgenic but
Stems always have them, roots don’t.
Taproot and Fibrous root difference
Examples of Prop Roots
Examples of Pneumatophores
What do contractile roots do? What plants examples?
What do all stems have?
What are Buds?
Thorns are? And have?
Strawberries reproduce which sexually?
All leaves have what? On where and where?
Spines on a cactus are?
Prickles are what? With?
How many elements are essential to nature?
Macronutrients are? And what %? Micro?
Improvements to unsustainable agricultural practices?