The ________ cartilage is a firm ring that forms the inferior part of the larynx
Which of the following MOST accurately lists the correct order of structures of the lower airway, starting inferiorly?
Alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi, trachea, larynx
Which of the following structures is/are contained within the mediastinum?
The diaphragm does NOT function as a voluntary muscle when a person
diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract and cause a decrease in intrathoracic pressure
In contrast to inhalation, exhalation:
is a passive process caused by increased intrathoracic pressure
Which of the following will MOST likely occur if the body is deprived of oxygen for less than 2 minutes
Irreversible brain damage and death are almost assured if the body’s cells are deprived of oxygen for greater than:
Of the 21% room air oxygen that a person inhales, approximately ___% is exhaled
Which of the following statements regarding normal gas exchange in the lungs is correct?
Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse across the alveolar walls and capillaries
The hypoxic drive, the primary stimulus to breathe for patients with certain chronic respiratory diseases, is influenced by:
low blood oxygen levels.
The severity of hypoxia depends MOSTLY on the patient’s:
Which of the following is a LATE sign of hypoxia?
Irregular respirations characterized by an increasing rate and depth of breathing followed by periods of apnea are called:
After opening an unconscious patient’s airway, you should
assess for respiratory effort
Which of the following conditions would be LEAST likely to result in severe hypoxia?
To select the proper size oropharyngeal airway, you should measure from the
corner of the mouth to the earlobe.
A nasopharyngeal airway is inserted
with the bevel facing the septum if inserted into the right nare
The nasopharyngeal airway is MOST beneficial because it
can maintain a patent airway in a semiconscious patient with a gag reflex.
Proper technique for suctioning the oropharynx of an adult patient includes:
suctioning while withdrawing the catheter from the oropharynx.
The MOST significant complication associated with oropharyngeal suctioning is
hypoxia due to prolonged suction attempts
When testing a mechanical suctioning unit, you should turn on the device, clamp the tubing, and ensure that it generates a vacuum pressure of more than
Which of the following patients should you place in the recovery position?
A 31-year-old semiconscious male with low blood sugar and adequate breathing
Which of the following body systems can survive the longest period of time without oxygen?
The pressure of gas in a full cylinder of oxygen is approximately ______ pounds per square inch (psi)
The purpose of the pin-indexing system that has been established for compressed gas cylinders is to:
ensure that the correct regulator is used for the cylinder.
An oxygen cylinder should be taken out of service and refilled when the pressure inside it is less than
Which of the following oxygen flowmeters is NOT affected by gravity and can be used in any position when attached to an oxygen cylinder?
When administering supplemental oxygen to a patient over a prolonged period of time, you should:
Which of the following statements regarding oxygen is correct?
Oxygen supports the combustion process and may cause a fire.
A patient who is suspected of being hypoxic and is breathing adequately should be given supplemental oxygen with a:
Prior to applying a nonrebreathing mask on a patient, you must ensure that the:
reservoir bag is fully inflated.
At a flow rate of 6 liters per minute (L/min), a nasal cannula can deliver an approximate oxygen concentration of ___%.
With a good mask-to-face seal and an oxygen flow rate of 15 L/min, the nonrebreathing mask is capable of delivering up to ____% oxygen.
As the single EMT-B managing an apneic patient’s airway, the preferred initial method of providing ventilations is the:
mouth-to-mask with one-way valve.
On which of the following patients would it be MOST appropriate to use the flow-restricted oxygen-powered ventilation device?
A 21-year-old male with atraumatic cardiac arrest
The MOST common and significant complication of using a flow-restricted oxygen- powered ventilation device is:
What occurs when a patient is breathing very rapidly and shallowly?
Air moves primarily in the anatomic dead space and does not participate in pulmonary gas exchange.
You are performing mouth-to-mask ventilations with O2 connected and set at a flow rate of 15 liters per minute. What % of O2 is your patient receiving?
Which of the following statements regarding the one-person bag-valve mask (BVM) device is correct?
Adequate tidal volume is often difficult to achieve when one EMT-B is operating the BVM device.
All of the following will help minimize the risk of gastric distention when ventilating an apneic patient with a BVM device, EXCEPT:
increasing the amount of delivered tidal volume.
Which of the following is the MOST reliable indicator of adequately performed BVM ventilations in an apneic adult with a pulse?
Adequate rise of the chest when squeezing the bag
A 71-year-old male is semiconscious following a sudden, severe headache. There is vomitus on his face and he is breathing with slow, shallow respirations. The MOST appropriate initial airway management for this patient is to:
perform oropharyngeal suctioning.
A 51-year-old female presents with a sudden onset of difficulty breathing. She is conscious and alert and able to speak in complete sentences. Her respirations are 24 breaths/min and regular. You should:
administer 100% oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
A 23-year-old male experienced severe head trauma after his motorcycle collided with an oncoming truck. He is unconscious, has rapid and shallow breathing, and is producing copious bloody secretions from his mouth. How should you manage his airway?
Alternate 15 seconds of oral suctioning with 2 minutes of assisted ventilation.
You are dispatched to a residence where a middle-aged man was found unconscious in his front yard. There are no witnesses that can tell you what happened. You find him in a prone position; his eyes are closed and he is not moving. Your FIRST action should be to:
log roll him as a unit to a supine position.
What is the MOST appropriate management for an uninjured semiconscious 40-year-old male with respirations of 20 breaths/min and adequate tidal volume?
Place him on his left side and administer oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask.
A 19-year-old female is found unconscious by her roommate. Your initial assessment reveals that her breathing is inadequate. As you insert an oropharyngeal airway, she begins to gag violently. You should:
remove the airway and be prepared to suction her oropharynx.
You and your partner are caring for a critically injured patient. Your partner is controlling severe bleeding from the patient’s lower extremities as you attempt ventilations with a BVM. After repositioning the mask several times, you are unable to effectively ventilate the patient. You should:
begin ventilations using the mouth-to-mask technique.
Despite your attempts to coach a conscious young female’s respirations, she continues to hyperventilate with a marked reduction in tidal volume. You should:
explain to her that you will assist her ventilations.
You are ventilating a patient with a stoma; however, air is escaping from the mouth and nose. To prevent this, you should:
Sorbitol, a complex sugar that:
facilitates movement through the digestive system.
Which of the following statements regarding glucose is correct?
Glucose is a simple sugar that is readily absorbed by the bloodstream.
Which of the following statements regarding the epinephrine auto-injector is correct?
The epinephrine auto-injector delivers a preset amount of the drug.
A 62-year-old male presents with crushing chest pain, which he describes as being the same kind of pain that he had with a previous heart attack. He has prescribed nitroglycerin, but states that he has not taken any. After administering 100% oxygen and contacting medical control, you should:
assist him with his nitroglycerin unless his systolic BP is less than 100 mm Hg.
“Alupent,” which he found in the backseat of the patient’s car. This medication suggests that the patient has a history of:
You are administering epinephrine via the subcutaneous route to a patient experiencing an acute allergic reaction. As you insert the needle and pull back on the plunger, you do not see any blood in the syringe. You should:
push the plunger on the syringe and administer the drug.