-Small kin based group, usually foragers in foraging societies, only nuclear families and bands.
-Example- Inuit, San
-economies based on non-intensive food production (horticulture/pastoralism), -Organize in kin groups based on common descent (clans, lineages)
-Based on formal government structure and sociopolitical stratification, began about 5500 years ago in Mesopotamia, large and populous, population controls (boundaries, citizenship, census, etc), laws, taxation, permanent military and police. Kinship role is diminished, different rights to different people.
-Economic status (weatlth) - person's material assets, income, land, etc.
-Power - ability to exercise ones will over others gives political staus.
-Prestige (social status) - esteem, respect, gives people a sense of worth and respect that can be converted into economic advantage.
"belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces" -- Wallace
-Burnett Tylor (the founder of the anthropology of religion) proposed that religion evolved like humans and like culture does: through stages.
-content and nature of religious acts
-extraordinary realm beyond, but impinging on the observable world. it is mysterious, cannot be explained, and must be accepted "on faith"
-Religion exists in all societies as a cultural universal, but different cultures perceive supernatural entities different ways.
-belief in spiritual beings, thought to be the earliest form of religion.
-Monotheism-single, all powerful god
-Some religions have a force that people can control under certain conditions.
-Example-Mana in Papua, New Guinea.
-Mana is a kind of like luck in our society. (charm that a good hunter has could have mana).
-Different cultures have different ideas of mana.
-Mana created taboos when some chiefs had it.
*taboo-things that are off limits to ordinary people, the things are sacred.
-Supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims, including spells, formulas, incantations.
-Magicains use imitative magic like voodoo dolls. -Contagious magic-uses nails or hair of someone they wish to put a spell on.
-Another function of magic is to help people accomplish goals.
-Rituals, formal, stylized, performed in special places at special times.
-They include liturgical orders - sequence of words and actions.
-religion explains things
-used as social control
-helps people face death, reduce anxiety, gain control, cope with tragedy.
-commitment and sense of belonging
-some religions co-exist, others don't
-Religious and political leaders use religion to control
-Market principle-has money, governs the distribution of the means of production
-Redistribution-operates when goods, services, or their
equivalents move from local level to center
-Reciprocity-exchange between social equals (balanced, negative, generalized)
widespread in human society, cultural generality
-family of orientation
-family of procreation
*nuclear family trend in US is changing due to demands, divorce, women working, and single parenting
*not all socities have nuclear families
-gift before, at or after marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin to compensate the brides group for the loss of her companionship and labor.
*more popular than dowry
-wife's group provides gifts for husbands family. females have low status and are seen as burdens.
*if marriage doesn't workout, sister or relative can step in
-more than one wife
-sometimes wife can pick second wife
-most nonindustrial food producing socities allow plural marriages
-more than one husband
-if bride dies young, substitute comes in, sororate
-if husband dies young, substitute comes in, levirate
(tibet, nipal, india)
-Hawaiian-all uncles are father, all aunts are mother, all cousins of own generation are brothers and sisters
-Eskimo-our system, nuclear family
-Iroquois-father and fathers brother=father
mother and mothers sister=mother
fathers sister-different term
mothers brother-different term
has priests and a divine power, but all under a single god. not concerned with natural world but with sacred realms.
-arose with states and social stratification,
-have full time religious specialists. Polytheistic, like greek gods. Gods that represent sea, sun, earth...
-have shamans, but also community rituals, celebrations and rites of passage. -they believe is severial deities (polytheism) who control aspects of nature (most typical of farming societies).
-shamans are part time religious figures who mediate between people and supernatural forces.
-most characteristic in foraging societies
-often shamans set themselves apart from others in some way