If random assignment is done correctly- there should be no confounds
Attempts to replicate a real life setting in a more controlled environment
ex; study on racial discrimination - read/create scenarios
· significant relationship b/t the researcher's treatment allegiances and treatment outcome in favor of the supported treatment
· researcher bias
· therapist effects: expectancy, warmth, effort
· some take dodo bird effect as indication that there are limitations to the medical model of mental illnesses
_______ = mental functioning is analogous to physical functioning (diagnosable, discrete diseases that can be solved with specific cures)
research journals and news outlets are biased towards interesting and surprising findings
null results are not interesting and dont get reported
some results are biased overall in press, bc we only hear about the times that it worked and showed something interesting
send to the journal the significant and interesting measures and not the insignificant measures/bad findings.
Gives impression of positive direction
· organizations that have the funding to run multiple studies have more power to influence the direction of scientific opinion (pharmaceutical companies)
· many studies, not all reported publicly
· some diagnostic categories are not fitting in certain populations and over fitting in others
· the DSM is created by individuals who might be profiting from pharmaceutical companies as well as make certain disorders more prominent
· different ways to cluster disorders based on population in which they are seen – for ex: depression, anxiety, OCD.
· Cultural specific phenomena?
each of our personalities contains the same five basic factors—neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. These five factors, rather than the disorders listed in the DSM, could constitute the dimensions on which clinical psychologists could place clients.
more diff to communicate but more thorough description of clients
Need to provide information to clarify their assessment; should give useful information
Each method offers a unique perspective, and although some may be more enlightening than others, it is the integration of multiple methods that ultimately proves most informative.
Objective – no human required to score or interpret; no subjectivity involved; mostly self-report – always based on their own subjective interpretation and what they want to divulge - not truly objective
- MMPI, MIllion clin Multiaxial Inventory; NEO Personalty Inventory, CA Psychosocial Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory
Most widely used personality measure
Really long true false test = 567 items
Very hard to give demand characteristics or socially desirable answers – less likely to bias responses in particular direction btw not clear what questions are getting at
Some outdated questions – still have to answer T/F – may push into a box
embedded quest that detect lying/faking path/faking good–want to seem healthier than are
(+) psychometrics - est v and reliable, comphrensiveness; Subscales to detect lying, honesty; Yields a lot of info; Normed on many different types of populations
-utility limited by length of test = need stamina – long attention span, have a decent vocab, need to be able to read
Big five personality traits: OCEAN
Very popular and widely used but less robust psychologically than others
Doesn’t tell you anyting about clinical dx bc DSM system is not set up according to big five
MMPI are fairly accurate but not helpful if someone has already been evaluated =projective testing is more helpful if already been evaluated
These are helpful for specific – ex: depression inventory
The CPI-III yields scores on 20 scales, the names of which reflect the positive nature of this test: Independence, Self-Acceptance, Empathy, Tolerance, Responsibility, and Flexibility, among others.
Because it emphasizes strengths rather than deficiencies, regarded neg by clinicians looking to dx, but positively by those looking to understand a broad range of their clients’ abilities and talents.
Perception always colored than more than just the stimuli; influenced by experience
Has fallen out of favor bc too subjective – has to be scored by human
Hard to fake them bc don’t mean anything
Better at unconscious conflict
Assess those who lie on self-report
Overall, fallen out of favor in clinical
Scored; very specific features of response that get certain types of scores
Despite variability in responses, can tell you something about the person even though feels very random to the person
No conclusion about single story
-how people depicted, how do they interact, do they help or not, do thing work out fine or badly, ect Look at patterns across stories
After reviewing some of the early empirical studies on psychotherapy outcome, Eysenck concluded that most clients got better without therapy and that in general, psychotherapy was of little benefit. His scientific methods have since been criticized and his claims overturned.
Usually asked right after the conclusion of therapy vs two years after = yield different conclusions
Some feel better right after or not better later; or opposite
evident that the time at which the researchers answer this question may influence the results they see.
those whose therapists offered transference interpretations benefited more from the therapy, and that this benefit correlated with a greater level of insight.