1st outer layer -emits radiation that we see
the constant stream of escaping solar particles.
This happens when protons and electrons escape from the sun and move at the speed of light reaching earth and moving more slowely this constant stream is solar wind.
Red Dwarfs (80% of stars in universe)
gas- individual atoms and small molecules. mostly hydrogen
dust- clumps of atoms and molecules
glowing could of hot interstellar gas
emitting bright line spectrum
It is a spectral emission line results from hydrogen-spin-flip process
Measures large scale structures and
loose irregular clustars typically contain from a few tens to a few thousands of stars- in milky way galaxy
low mass- inner core becomes too cool to keep nuclear burning. nees to reach 600 million k
high mass- explode as a supernova either a -neutron star or - collapse and become a black hole
white dwarfs occur then the core becomes very small but shines brightly by only stored heat
Eventually will become a black dwarf as it continues to cool and dim
a nova is produced when i white dwarf becomes explosively active and suddenly appear in the night sky. lasts for a perios of 3 days.
(extra matter from red giant wraps around white dwarf)
1. neutrino pressure
2. fusion of infalling material
(type 2 supernova explosion)
type 1- very little hydrogen and light curves
type 2- hydrogen rich characteristic "plaleu" in the light curve few months after the maximum
type 2- stellar envelope expanding and cooling as it is blown into space by a shockwave sweeping up from below
type 1- mass grows internal pressure rise. Exceeds maximum mass of 1.4 solar mass