How do viruses differ from bacteria?
What are the purposes of spikes on a virus?
A clear area against a confluent “lawn” of bacteria is a called a what?
How do continuous cell lines differ from primary cell lines?
What would be the first step in biosynthesis of a virus with a strand of RNA?
What is necessary for replication of a prion?
To which group does a small, nonenveloped single-stranded RNA virus most likely belong?
What is the most conclusive evidence that viruses cause cancers?
What is a persistent infection?
Know examples of latent viral infections.
How does generalized transduction differ from specialized transduction?
Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
How does transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota?
Symptoms of a disease differ from signs of disease how?
Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of what type of transmission?
Gastroenterisitis acquired from roast beef is an example of what type of transmission?
Know examples of vectors.
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of what type of infection?
What is the most frequently used portal of entry for pathogens?
Most pathogens that gain access through the skin enter how?
Endotoxins are what? (aka Lipid A)
Cytopathic effects are changes in host cells due to what?
Siderophores are bacterial proteins that compete with animal what?
Know entry examples via the parental route.
What is ID50?
What is the function of the “ciliary escalator”?
What all do Toll-like receptors (TLR’s) attach to?
What does margination refer to?
What are the results of complement activation?
What are the effects of histamines?
The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by what?
The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by what?
What is the major function of eosinophils?
Macrophages arise from what?
What is the first step in the process of inflammation?